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Light is registered in the retina when photons hit molecules

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Light is registered in the retina when photons hit molecules [#permalink] New post 08 Dec 2010, 10:34
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A
B
C
D
E

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Light is registered in the retina when photons hit molecules of the pigment rhodopsin and change the molecules’ shape. Even when they have not been struck by photons of light, rhodopsin molecules sometimes change shape because of normal molecular motion, thereby introducing error into the visual system. The amount of this molecular motion is directly proportional to the temperature of the retina.
Which one of the following conclusion is most strongly supported by the information above?
(A) The temperature of an animal’s retina depends on the amount of light the retina is absorbing.
(B) The visual systems of animals whose boy temperature matches that of their surroundings are more error-prone in hot surroundings than in cold ones.
(C) As the temperature of the retina rises, rhodopsin molecules react more slowly to being struck by photons.
(D) Rhodopsin molecules are more sensitive to photons in animals whose retinas have large surface areas than in animals whose retinas have small surface areas.
(E) Molecules of rhodopsin are the only pigment molecules that occur naturally in the retina.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 08 Dec 2010, 17:17
B. Just seemed to be the most logical conclusion.
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 08 Dec 2010, 17:56
Expert's post
noboru wrote:
Light is registered in the retina when photons hit molecules of the pigment rhodopsin and change the molecules’ shape. Even when they have not been struck by photons of light, rhodopsin molecules sometimes change shape because of normal molecular motion, thereby introducing error into the visual system. The amount of this molecular motion is directly proportional to the temperature of the retina.
Which one of the following conclusion is most strongly supported by the information above?
(A) The temperature of an animal’s retina depends on the amount of light the retina is absorbing.
(B) The visual systems of animals whose boy temperature matches that of their surroundings are more error-prone in hot surroundings than in cold ones.
(C) As the temperature of the retina rises, rhodopsin molecules react more slowly to being struck by photons.
(D) Rhodopsin molecules are more sensitive to photons in animals whose retinas have large surface areas than in animals whose retinas have small surface areas.
(E) Molecules of rhodopsin are the only pigment molecules that occur naturally in the retina.


We are looking for the conclusion. It means there should be no new information and it should be implied from the passage.

Premises:
-Light is registered in the retina when photons hit molecules and these molecules change their shape.
- Even when they have not been struck by photons of light, rhodopsin molecules sometimes change shape because of normal molecular motion,
- This change in shape introduces error into the visual system.
- The amount of this molecular motion is directly proportional to the temperature of the retina.

So if the temperature is high, molecular motion is more. More molecular motion could introduce more error.

(A) The temperature of an animal’s retina depends on the amount of light the retina is absorbing.
We know that light changes rhodopsin's shape. We also know that molecular motion changes rhodopsin's shape. Further, we know that higher temperatures cause more molecular motion. But we do not know whether light and temperature of the retina are inter-related.

(B) The visual systems of animals whose body temperature matches that of their surroundings are more error-prone in hot surroundings than in cold ones.
In hot surroundings, animals' bodies get heated up too. Retina temperature is high, resulting in higher molecular motion. This increases the chances of error in vision.

(C) As the temperature of the retina rises, rhodopsin molecules react more slowly to being struck by photons.
New information. Nothing mentioned in the passage.

(D) Rhodopsin molecules are more sensitive to photons in animals whose retinas have large surface areas than in animals whose retinas have small surface areas.
New information. Nothing mentioned in the passage.

(E) Molecules of rhodopsin are the only pigment molecules that occur naturally in the retina.
New information. Nothing mentioned in the passage.
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 09 Dec 2010, 01:06
Rule:- Stick as closely as possible to the what concluded in the passage.

(A) The temperature of an animal’s retina depends on the amount of light the retina is absorbing.
The amount of molecular motion is temperature dependant and not temperature itself.

B) The visual systems of animals whose body temperature matches that of their surroundings are more error-prone in hot surroundings than in cold ones.
Increase in temperature causes mroe molecular motion and therby more error proned vision. Correct Answer.

(C) As the temperature of the retina rises, rhodopsin molecules react more slowly to being struck by photons.
Again opposite of what colcluded in the passage. Wrong.

(D) Rhodopsin molecules are more sensitive to photons in animals whose retinas have large surface areas than in animals whose retinas have small surface areas.
Passage does not mention anything about area of the retina surface. Wrong Choice.

(E) Molecules of rhodopsin are the only pigment molecules that occur naturally in the retina.
Too much derived conclusion. Incorrect.

answer:- B
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 10 Dec 2010, 10:39
OA is B.
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 10 Dec 2010, 11:43
I got B as well.

Great question
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2011, 13:48
sorry for bringing up somewhat old post. But I couldn't find satisfactory answer on the net.

I have just one doubt for the answer B.
Why it is considered plausible to assume that when body temperature increases retina temp. increases. This may be common sense but certainly not indicated in argument/stimuli. Also I think it is possible that temp of certain body parts, I think I know an example that I can't mention in open forum(just being little modest :P ), may not increase in proportion to the body temp. Bio guys would know for sure.

I couldn't entirely justify 'more slowly' in C but still I inferred as below and marked this choice correct.

increase in retina temp -> increase in molecular motion -> change in shape -> error in visual system

Now visual system is proper when photons cause change in the molecular shape. Since there is error in visual system, the photons are obstructed to cause change in the molecular shape. This in turn can mean molecules are slow in reacting to being struck by photons(that's why they couldn't affect molecules properly causing visual error).

Well I have certain doubts on this reasoning but I would like to know the inputs from others for assumption in B and my somewhat convoluted reasoning for C(may not be no-nonsense).

There is somewhat similar example in the CR bible. In here it canceled the option D only because 'rolling pins' and 'the utensils' are not the same(thought it accepts former is subset of latter). In fact, they are not and I accepted that. Also B was much better option and it too required more inference.

Quote:
In an experiment, two-year-old boys and their fathers made pie dough together using rolling pins and other utensils. Each father-son pair used a rolling pin that was distinctively different from those used by the other father-son pairs, and each father repeated the phrase "rolling pin" each time his son used it. But when the children were asked to identify all of the rolling pins among a group of kitchen utensils that included several rolling pins, each child picked only the one that he had used.
Which one of the following inferences is most supported by the information above?

(A) The children did not grasp the function of rolling pin
(B) No two children understood the name "rolling pin" to apply to the same object
(C) The children understood that all rolling pins have the same general shape
(D) Each child was able to identify correctly only the utensils that he had used
(E) The children were not able to distinguish the rolling pins they used from other rolling pins

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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2011, 14:02
Pls review this line - "The amount of this molecular motion is directly proportional to the temperature of the retina."

Assumption : retina is a body part !

Now read B.

hellishbrain wrote:

I have just one doubt for the answer B.
Why it is considered plausible to assume that when body temperature increases retina temp. increases. This may be common sense but certainly not indicated in argument/stimuli. Also I think it is possible that temp of certain body parts, I think I know an example that I can't mention in open forum(just being little modest :P ), may not increase in proportion to the body temp. Bio guys would know for sure.
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2011, 14:27
First of all, 'retina is a body part' can not be an assumption. It's a fact.
Assumption taken in B is ' increase in body temp. increases retina temp'.
This cannot be universal fact as it is. I mean 'your hand doesn't feel pain when your leg gets hurt'. May not be best ex. but you get the idea.

Second, this assumption cannot be proven by
"The amount of this molecular motion is directly proportional to the temperature of the retina."

Assumption is not pertaining to molecules and retina but to retina and body.
Actually I had properly understood this statement, which actually answers 'more error-prone in hot surroundings than in cold ones' in option B
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2011, 17:09
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hellishbrain wrote:
First of all, 'retina is a body part' can not be an assumption. It's a fact.
Assumption taken in B is ' increase in body temp. increases retina temp'.
This cannot be universal fact as it is. I mean 'your hand doesn't feel pain when your leg gets hurt'. May not be best ex. but you get the idea.

Second, this assumption cannot be proven by
"The amount of this molecular motion is directly proportional to the temperature of the retina."

Assumption is not pertaining to molecules and retina but to retina and body.
Actually I had properly understood this statement, which actually answers 'more error-prone in hot surroundings than in cold ones' in option B


The example you quoted above and this question use two different concepts.

You cannot infer something generic from a specific example.
In your example, option D mentions that children were able to identify 'the utensils' which includes rolling pins and other utensils. The stimulus only tells us that the children were able to identify rolling pins. There is no info about other utensils. So we cannot infer D.

On the other hand, you can infer specific from general information. This question says that the body temperature is high. Retina is a part of the body and so the body temperature is applicable to it as well. e.g. if your body temperature is high, your hand's temperature is also high. It is implied here. Even if there are differences, we are not supposed to use outside information and are supposed to work with given information only. We only need to use what is obvious to everyone e.g. retina is a part of the body and body temperature applies to retina too.
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2011, 22:57
I knew it! :) Someone is going to attack my ex. It was just the first ex. that came to my mind and I said it's not the best ex. Mathematically, i gave ex. of disjoint set for explaining subset!
True I was not exactly to the point.(Wanted to explain my idea anyway)

It's true that specific example cannot be used to prove generality. It is strict no. Didn't doubt this.

Now can we always infer specific from generic? I doubted that and thanks to you for mitigating it but still not completely convinced yet.

Consider this exs., which I think are better than previous
"Chelsea hasn't performed that well this season" Does this mean every player(at least 'most') hasn't performed well?

"Indian cricket team is performing really well in world cup". Does that mean Sreesanth(below par performer) is doing good too?

To what extent can we go for accepting specific from generic?
I think going to 'too specific' from 'generic' is also wrong. Do you think?
But again what is 'too specific'? Does the option B fall into this category?
Karishma/others I'll appreciate if you help.
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 03 Mar 2011, 19:59
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"Chelsea hasn't performed that well this season" Does this mean every player(at least 'most') hasn't performed well?

No. Nothing given about other players.

"Indian cricket team is performing really well in world cup". Does that mean Sreesanth(below par performer) is doing good too?

Again, no. The team as a unit has shown good performance. A particular player may not have. It is logical.
On the other hand,
All Indian cricketers are performing really well in the world cup.
This means that Sreesanth(Indian cricketer) is performing well too.


To what extent can we go for accepting specific from generic?

It is a matter of logic.

I like cakes. This is a cake.
I can easily infer that I like this.

I like tiramisu bar cakes. This is a cake.
Do I like this? I do not know.

Body temperature is high. Retina is a part of the body.
Retina temperature is high - I can infer this.

Don't try to dig deep into it. This is not the point in a question where you will get stuck. GMAT will not give you arbitrary questions.

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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 03 Mar 2011, 22:41
Thanks Karishma.

But Body is similar to "a team" and not to "All players" right?

Then 'temperature of all body parts is high' should have been there rather than 'Body temperature is high' to infer "retina temp. is high' clearly and well within the scope of argument.

You are right I am thinking too much there.
"Don't go beyond argument while inferring(of course keeping common sense intact)' advice made me harshly restrictive I guess.
Only thing is I got this wrong only because of this assumption otherwise it was straightforward answer.

Thinking back it looks i should have made that assumption.
Well thanks for helping.
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 10 Jul 2011, 23:25
Can someone please explain how it is possible that we can bring outside information in a Must Be True question? In the whole stimulus the word 'animals' isn't mentioned at all. And yet the answer B talks about animals. Now, the stimulus can easily be about retina of Martians, for all we know, and animals retina can function totally differently.

Completely confused here.

Thank you.
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2011, 00:18
noboru wrote:
Light is registered in the retina when photons hit molecules of the pigment rhodopsin and change the molecules’ shape. Even when they have not been struck by photons of light, rhodopsin molecules sometimes change shape because of normal molecular motion, thereby introducing error into the visual system. The amount of this molecular motion is directly proportional to the temperature of the retina.
Which one of the following conclusion is most strongly supported by the information above?
(A) The temperature of an animal’s retina depends on the amount of light the retina is absorbing.
(B) The visual systems of animals whose boy temperature matches that of their surroundings are more error-prone in hot surroundings than in cold ones.
(C) As the temperature of the retina rises, rhodopsin molecules react more slowly to being struck by photons.
(D) Rhodopsin molecules are more sensitive to photons in animals whose retinas have large surface areas than in animals whose retinas have small surface areas.
(E) Molecules of rhodopsin are the only pigment molecules that occur naturally in the retina.



great explaination Karishma, The answer is definitely B.
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2011, 00:25
I would be very cautious to call B definitely the correct answer.

So it'd be great if someone could answer my question 2 post earlier.

Thanks.
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2011, 02:53
Expert's post
nonameee wrote:
I would be very cautious to call B definitely the correct answer.

So it'd be great if someone could answer my question 2 post earlier.

Thanks.


In the stimulus, the characteristics of retina are mentioned in general. They would be true for retinas of anyone. The word 'animal' is mentioned in the sense of 'plant kingdom' and 'animal kingdom'.
The only question you might have is that they don't mention that animals' visual system has retinas. Doubting this while picking your answer is like doubting that out of 10 children, 7 are girls given that 3 are boys.
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2011, 04:39
Karishma, thanks for your reply. I understand your logic. However, I haven't majored in biology or medicine, and I don't know that the human eye has the retina. Therefore, I can't deduce from the stimulus that the information in it applies to all living organisms on this planet. In fact, as I have written in my first post, I don't even know that the text is about our planet. What if it's from some science fiction book about Martians.

Could you please clarify?
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 12 Jul 2011, 02:16
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nonameee wrote:
Karishma, thanks for your reply. I understand your logic. However, I haven't majored in biology or medicine, and I don't know that the human eye has the retina. Therefore, I can't deduce from the stimulus that the information in it applies to all living organisms on this planet. In fact, as I have written in my first post, I don't even know that the text is about our planet. What if it's from some science fiction book about Martians.

Could you please clarify?


Even if you don't know it, you can figure it out from context, can't you? The options talk about animals' retinas. If it is from some science fiction book about Martians, the options will say, 'Martians' retinas'. Is there any other option that makes more sense? Anyway, actual GMAT questions will not leave you in doubt. You are worrying too much.
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Re: the temperature of the retina [#permalink] New post 12 Jul 2011, 02:33
B.+1
Re: the temperature of the retina   [#permalink] 12 Jul 2011, 02:33
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