I understand that option A is the correct coz LIKE compares two NOUNS,in this sentence - mathematicians and Edward Sang.
As you said 'who.....tables' is a relative clause........
it will be right if I say---"Who" modifies mathematician?
Why option B is incorrect?
If we choose option B then what will go wrong with the sentence?Will it change the meaning?If yes , how?
Looking forward for clarification.....
Like many other 18th-century mathematicians who compiled huge logarithmic tables, Edward Sang experienced great difficulty in trying to get his work published.
A.Like - > who compiled blah blah is a relative clause , many other 18th century is an adjective modifying mathematician. So if you break it into barebones format it is correct.
B.Just like -> Correct usage :Just like X , so as Y.
C.Just as with -> Incorrect comparison
D.As did - > as in comparison requires a clause.
E.As had -> Same as D