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# Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in

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Re: Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2006, 19:04
trivikram wrote:
gottodoit wrote:
trivikram wrote:
vw01 wrote:
I agree with gottodoit for the answer - B.

C: A failure to observe Lofgren's disease in commercial chicken populations is not good evidence that chickens are immune to the virus that causes this disease.
Explanation: In the passage, the author didn't mention anything that leads to the conclusion that chickens are immune to the virus. However, the author did mention that the disease is rare in chicken. So, this choice looks to me out of scope.

B: There is no way to determine whether a chicken is infected with the Lofgren's disease virus before the chicken shows symptoms of the disease.
Explanation: Since the chickens are generally brought to the market during their first year of life and it takes one year to develop symptoms of Lofgren's disease in any animal (that includes chicken too), so there is no way to determine whether those chickens are infected with the disease, at least with the information that is available to us to analyze.

Argument:
"Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in commercially raised cattle but very rarely in chickens. Both cattle and chickens raised for meat are often fed the type of feed that transmits the virus that causes the disease. Animals infected with the virus take more than a year to develop symptoms of Lofgren's disease, however, and chickens commercially raised for meat, unlike cattle, are generally brought to market during their first year of life. "

I chose C because in B the bolded portion is contradictory

B says there is no way but the stem says "very rarely" . So B is a sweeping generalization

Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in commercially raised cattle but very rarely in chickens

Stem says disease observed very rarely because "chichens are generally brought to market during their first year of life" so it's very rare that they are kept beyond the first year of their life. There is nothing wrong in B.

Had they been kept alive for more than one year (like Cows), chickens would have shown the symptom "very frequently".

Still I don't see any convincing point to discard B. I think my comments about C are enough to discard it!

Good point gottodoit.

But consider this

however, and chickens commercially raised for meat, unlike cattle, are generally brought to market during their first year of life

There is no gurantee that all the chicken are brought before the first year

Where as B states

"There is no way to determine whether a chicken is infected with the Lofgren's disease virus before the chicken shows symptoms of the disease. "
which is not right 'cos it is too generic.

Truly appreciate you for a very good question though

So assuming that B is nothing but a generalization (I am not yet convinced), how do you explain IMMUNITY (C) that is not at all mentioned anywhere in the passage and still you think that is acceptable?
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Re: Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2006, 20:11
gottodoit wrote:
Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in commercially raised cattle but very rarely in chickens. Both cattle and chickens raised for meat are often fed the type of feed that transmits the virus that causes the disease. Animals infected with the virus take more than a year to develop symptoms of Lofgren's disease, however, and chickens commercially raised for meat, unlike cattle, are generally brought to market during their first year of life.

Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information provided?

A: The virus that causes Lofgren's disease cannot be transmitted to human beings by chickens.

B: There is no way to determine whether a chicken is infected with the Lofgren's disease virus before the chicken shows symptoms of the disease.

C: A failure to observe Lofgren's disease in commercial chicken populations is not good evidence that chickens are immune to the virus that causes this disease.

D: An animal that has been infected with the virus that causes Lofgren's disease but that has not developed symptoms cannot transmit the disease to an uninfected animal of the same species.

E: The feed that chickens and cattle are fed is probably not the only source of the virus that causes Lofgren's disease.

hmmmm.................

B and C are neck-to-neck.
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Re: Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2006, 20:57
What is the OA?
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Re: Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2006, 03:15
gottodoit wrote:
trivikram wrote:
gottodoit wrote:
trivikram wrote:
vw01 wrote:
I agree with gottodoit for the answer - B.

C: A failure to observe Lofgren's disease in commercial chicken populations is not good evidence that chickens are immune to the virus that causes this disease.
Explanation: In the passage, the author didn't mention anything that leads to the conclusion that chickens are immune to the virus. However, the author did mention that the disease is rare in chicken. So, this choice looks to me out of scope.

B: There is no way to determine whether a chicken is infected with the Lofgren's disease virus before the chicken shows symptoms of the disease.
Explanation: Since the chickens are generally brought to the market during their first year of life and it takes one year to develop symptoms of Lofgren's disease in any animal (that includes chicken too), so there is no way to determine whether those chickens are infected with the disease, at least with the information that is available to us to analyze.

Argument:
"Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in commercially raised cattle but very rarely in chickens. Both cattle and chickens raised for meat are often fed the type of feed that transmits the virus that causes the disease. Animals infected with the virus take more than a year to develop symptoms of Lofgren's disease, however, and chickens commercially raised for meat, unlike cattle, are generally brought to market during their first year of life. "

I chose C because in B the bolded portion is contradictory

B says there is no way but the stem says "very rarely" . So B is a sweeping generalization

Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in commercially raised cattle but very rarely in chickens

Stem says disease observed very rarely because "chichens are generally brought to market during their first year of life" so it's very rare that they are kept beyond the first year of their life. There is nothing wrong in B.

Had they been kept alive for more than one year (like Cows), chickens would have shown the symptom "very frequently".

Still I don't see any convincing point to discard B. I think my comments about C are enough to discard it!

Good point gottodoit.

But consider this

however, and chickens commercially raised for meat, unlike cattle, are generally brought to market during their first year of life

There is no gurantee that all the chicken are brought before the first year

Where as B states

"There is no way to determine whether a chicken is infected with the Lofgren's disease virus before the chicken shows symptoms of the disease. "
which is not right 'cos it is too generic.

Truly appreciate you for a very good question though

So assuming that B is nothing but a generalization (I am not yet convinced), how do you explain IMMUNITY (C) that is not at all mentioned anywhere in the passage and still you think that is acceptable?

In the stem we have

Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in commercially raised cattle but very rarely in chickens. Both cattle and chickens raised for meat are often fed the type of feed that transmits the virus that causes the disease. Animals infected with the virus take more than a year to develop symptoms of Lofgren's disease, however, and chickens commercially raised for meat, unlike cattle, are generally brought to market during their first year of life.

"Immunity" meaning is having resistance to a disease.
As the stem says though it is very rare to find the disease in the chicken it shouldnt be thought as "immunity" 'cos the chicken generally are taken during their first year of life. Though "immunity" has not been given it is the ability to not see the disease here I thought
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Re: Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2006, 04:04
trivikram wrote:
gottodoit wrote:
trivikram wrote:
gottodoit wrote:
trivikram wrote:
vw01 wrote:
I agree with gottodoit for the answer - B.

C: A failure to observe Lofgren's disease in commercial chicken populations is not good evidence that chickens are immune to the virus that causes this disease.
Explanation: In the passage, the author didn't mention anything that leads to the conclusion that chickens are immune to the virus. However, the author did mention that the disease is rare in chicken. So, this choice looks to me out of scope.

B: There is no way to determine whether a chicken is infected with the Lofgren's disease virus before the chicken shows symptoms of the disease.
Explanation: Since the chickens are generally brought to the market during their first year of life and it takes one year to develop symptoms of Lofgren's disease in any animal (that includes chicken too), so there is no way to determine whether those chickens are infected with the disease, at least with the information that is available to us to analyze.

Argument:
"Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in commercially raised cattle but very rarely in chickens. Both cattle and chickens raised for meat are often fed the type of feed that transmits the virus that causes the disease. Animals infected with the virus take more than a year to develop symptoms of Lofgren's disease, however, and chickens commercially raised for meat, unlike cattle, are generally brought to market during their first year of life. "

I chose C because in B the bolded portion is contradictory

B says there is no way but the stem says "very rarely" . So B is a sweeping generalization

Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in commercially raised cattle but very rarely in chickens

Stem says disease observed very rarely because "chichens are generally brought to market during their first year of life" so it's very rare that they are kept beyond the first year of their life. There is nothing wrong in B.

Had they been kept alive for more than one year (like Cows), chickens would have shown the symptom "very frequently".

Still I don't see any convincing point to discard B. I think my comments about C are enough to discard it!

Good point gottodoit.

But consider this

however, and chickens commercially raised for meat, unlike cattle, are generally brought to market during their first year of life

There is no gurantee that all the chicken are brought before the first year

Where as B states

"There is no way to determine whether a chicken is infected with the Lofgren's disease virus before the chicken shows symptoms of the disease. "
which is not right 'cos it is too generic.

Truly appreciate you for a very good question though

So assuming that B is nothing but a generalization (I am not yet convinced), how do you explain IMMUNITY (C) that is not at all mentioned anywhere in the passage and still you think that is acceptable?

In the stem we have

Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in commercially raised cattle but very rarely in chickens. Both cattle and chickens raised for meat are often fed the type of feed that transmits the virus that causes the disease. Animals infected with the virus take more than a year to develop symptoms of Lofgren's disease, however, and chickens commercially raised for meat, unlike cattle, are generally brought to market during their first year of life.

"Immunity" meaning is having resistance to a disease.
As the stem says though it is very rare to find the disease in the chicken it shouldnt be thought as "immunity" 'cos the chicken generally are taken during their first year of life. Though "immunity" has not been given it is the ability to not see the disease here I thought

Take this one more flaw in C =>

C starts with: A failure to observe Lofgren's disease in commercial chicken...

There is no failure ....it is observed but rarely!
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Re: Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2006, 10:21
Hi Guys,

While we are discussing the option B and C, let's revisit the question once again...the question says:

Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information provided?
...
B: There is no way to determine whether a chicken is infected with the Lofgren's disease virus before the chicken shows symptoms of the disease.
C: A failure to observe Lofgren's disease in commercial chicken populations is not good evidence that chickens are immune to the virus that causes this disease.
...
Now if we consider option C, what it signifies is that the:
conclusion of the given argument, say Y, is: Chickens are immune to the virus that causes this disease.
and it's given evidence in the argument, say X, is: A failure to observe Lofgren's disease in commercial chicken populations
And the option C then means that X does not lead to Y.

So, for option C to be true, author must provide both coclusion - Y and evidence X in argument, whereas,
- the argument never talks about the conclusion to be Y (it can be infered only), and,
- Also you cannot consider X as an evidence (not even as an assumption) because author did say that disease can be observed rarely in chicken...the author never talked about failure to observe disease.
So, even if Y is considered as inference (as trivikram pointed out), the option C cannot be considered as true, since X is never mentioned as evidence or assumption.

Using POE, the option B then wins.

Let me know if you have some other views.

Argument (for easy reference): "Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in commercially raised cattle but very rarely in chickens. Both cattle and chickens raised for meat are often fed the type of feed that transmits the virus that causes the disease. Animals infected with the virus take more than a year to develop symptoms of Lofgren's disease, however, and chickens commercially raised for meat, unlike cattle, are generally brought to market during their first year of life.
"
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17 Jun 2006, 17:20
<b>Argument:</b> Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in commercially raised cattle but very rarely in chickens. Both cattle and chickens raised for meat are often fed the type of feed that transmits the virus that causes the disease. Animals infected with the virus take more than a year to develop symptoms of Lofgren's disease, however, and chickens commercially raised for meat, unlike cattle, are generally brought to market during their first year of life.

Which of the following is best supported:

B and C are very close.

Two statements can be properly drawn i think from this CR:

1) It may be very true that Chickens does not have more immunity compared to Cattle.

or

2) It may be the case that it is difficult to identify the disease in Chicken when they are less than an year old.

C and B closely match with 1) and 2)

However 'failure to observer' in C is bit extreme (as the CR says that the disease is observed rarely)

B can be the answer and might be it!! N we do not have the OA http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/images/sm ... on_cry.gif
Crying or Very sad
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17 Jun 2006, 18:33
gottodoit wrote:
Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in commercially raised cattle but very rarely in chickens. Both cattle and chickens raised for meat are often fed the type of feed that transmits the virus that causes the disease. Animals infected with the virus take more than a year to develop symptoms of Lofgren's disease, however, and chickens commercially raised for meat, unlike cattle, are generally brought to market during their first year of life.
Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information provided?
B: There is no way to determine whether a chicken is infected with the Lofgren's disease virus before the chicken shows symptoms of the disease.

It's clearly B!

"however, and chickens commercially raised for meat, unlike cattle, are generally brought to market during their first year of life." ---> if there's a way, besides symptoms, to determine whether a chicken is infected, the chicken won't be brought to sell in the market! ---> It's what B clearly say.
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08 Aug 2006, 07:57
I would say C as B uses no way which is too strong.
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Re: Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2006, 08:52
I will go for C.

Here is my explanation:

Premise1: Lofgren's is rare in chickens than it is in cattle.
Premise2: Both cattle and chicken eat same food that may cause disease.
Premise3: It takes one year for symptoms to appear.
Premise4: Chickens are brought to market in their first year.

Now the question asks for inference NOT the conslusion.
What we can infer?

1. It takes 1 year for symptoms to year doesn't mean that the disease can not be detected in first year. Only thing we can infer is NO sysmtoms can appear before 1 year and if sysmtoms are there then the chicken is atleast one year old.

2. The rarity of disease is not related to food. There MUST be some other cause of rarity.

3. No symptoms of disease have been observed in chickens brought in market.

Using 2nd inference we can say that if we have not observed the disease in chickens then it doesn't mean that they are immune. Chickens are also susecptible to disease but only thing is we have not observed.
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08 Aug 2006, 12:18
It's C.

B refers to chicken general and not specific to Commercial type chicken as discussed in the passage.
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17 Aug 2006, 01:22
sumitsarkar82 wrote:
I would say C as B uses no way which is too strong.

Used the exact same line of reasoning. NO WAY = 100% Far too extreme.

(C)

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Re: Lofgren's disease has been observed frequently in [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2016, 23:16
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I will go with B.

Let's consider the two statements(B and C) :-

B) There is no way to determine whether a chicken is infected with the Lofgren's disease virus before the chicken shows symptoms of the disease.

C) A failure to observe Lofgren's disease in commercial chicken populations is not good evidence that chickens are immune to the virus that causes this disease.

I will consider the exact meaning of each and every word used in the options.

Let's first try to eliminate C

A failure to observe Lofgren's disease in commercial chicken populations is not good evidence that chickens are immune to the virus that causes this disease.

Considering the main points stated in this option:
1. failure to observe Lofgren's disease in commercial chicken --> The stimulus states that it has been found in chickens, rarely, but yes.
2. Immunity to the virus --> IMO this is out of the scope of this question, as immunity has not been talked about at all.

This option CAN BE TRUE but isn't necessarily. Why? Because the main points which are making up the statement are themselves not true.

Which leaves us with B
There is no way to determine whether a chicken is infected with the Lofgren's disease virus before the chicken shows symptoms of the disease.

Considering the main points stated in this option :
1. No way to determine whether a chicken is infected with the disease before the chicken shows symptoms --> Two points to consider here. First, it has been stated in the passage that chickens have been found showing the symptoms. Second, the commercially raised chickens are GENERALLY(not necessarily always) bought to market within a year of their life. This doesn't lead to anything contradictory or out of scope of the passage.
2. This statement is very well not out of scope.

I would go with B.
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