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X: Since many chemicals useful for agriculture and medicine derive from rare or endangered plant species, it is likely that many plant species that are now extinct could have provide us with substances that would have been a boon to humanity. Therefore, if we want to ensure that chemicals from plants are available for use in the fu-ture, we must make more serious efforts to preserve for all time our natural resource.
Y: But living things are not our Â«resources.Â» Yours is a selfish approach to conservation. We should rather strive to preserve living species because they deserve to survive, not because of the good they can do us.
1. Which one of the following is an issue about which X and Y disagree?
(A) Whether the benefits humans derive from exploring non-human species provides a good reason for preserv-ing non-human species.
(B) Whether the cost of preserving plant species outweighs that could otherwise be derived from those species.
(C) Whether it is prudent to conserve natural resources
(D) Whether humans should make efforts to prevent the extinction of living species.
(E) Whether all non-human species are equally valuable as natural resources.
2. X’s argument relies on which one of the following assumptions?
(A) Medicine would now be more advanced than it is if there had been a serious conservation policy in the past.
(B) All living things exist to serve humankind.
(C) The use of rare and endangered plant species as a source for chemicals will not itself render those species extinct.
(D) The only way to persuade people to preserve natural resources is to convince them that it is in their interest to do so.
(E) Few, if any, plant species have been saved from extinction through human efforts.
There is relatively little room for growth in the overall carpet market, which is tied to the size of the population. Most who purchase carpet do so only once or twice, first in their fifties or sixties. Thus as the population ages, companies producing carpet will be able to gain market share competitors, and not through more aggressive marketing.
Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the conclusion above?
(A) Most of the major carpet producers market other floor coverings as well.
(B) Most established carpet producers market several different brand names and varieties, and there is no re-maining niche in the market for new brands to fill.
(C) Two of the three mergers in the industry’s last ten years led to a decline in profits and revenues for the newly merged companies.
(D) Price reductions, achieved by cost-cutting in production, by some of the dominant firms in the carpet market are causing other producers to leave the market altogether.
(E) The carpet market is unlike most markets in that consumers are becoming increasingly resistant to new pat-terns and styles.