i don't know how you express it in english, but translated directly from russian it sounds like 'logical proposition problems'
here is an example:
we have four students: 1, 2, 3, 4. determine how many of students passed the exam, if it is known that:
1. if 1 passed, then 2 also passed
2. if 2 passed, then 3 also passed or 1 failed
3. if 4 failed, then 1 passed and 3 failed
4. if 4 passed, then 1 passed.
first i wanted to think about this problem in terms of combination or permutation
, but i am sure it has its own ways of solution.