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Explanation for Q3: Since there are fewer winning tickets than losing tickets in a lottery, the author claims that it is safe to say that any given ticket will not be a winner. In other words, the author is equating "low chance of winning" with "no chance of winning". This scenario is most closely replicated in choice A. Chance of drawing an ace in a random selection of a card from a 52-card deck is 4/52 and that of not drawing one is 48/52. Since there is much less chance of drawing an ace, the author assumes there is no chance of drawing an ace. The only confusion that this question could have caused is that each choice except the 1st (A) gives the total size of the pool. That may well have been done to throw us off.
For the third one, A and E are close calls, but A wins because in E there is an "if" condition at the end "if Pat is five years old then bla bla" which is not matching the given premises. A is completely unconditional as in the premises.