A long-term health study that followed a group of people who were age 35 in 1950 found that those whose weight is increased by approximately half a kilogram or one pound per year after age of 35 tended, on the whole, to live longer than those who maintained the weight they had at age 35. This finding seems at variance with other studies that have associated weight gain with a host of health problems that tend to lower the lower life expectancy.
A) As people age, muscle and bone tissue tends to make up a smaller and smaller proportion of total body weight.
B) Individuals who reduce their cholesterol levels by losing their weight can thereby also reduce their risk of dying from heart attacks or strokes.
C) Smokers, who tend to be leaner than nonsmokers, tend to have shorter life spans than nonsmokers.
D) The normal deterioration of the human immune system with age can be slowed down by a reduction in the number of calories consumed.
E) Diets that tend to lead to weight gain often contain not only excess fat but also unhealthful concentrations of sugar and sodium.
Discrepency: Being fat is not good. Here being fat is good.
Possibilities to resolve it:
Certain fatty foods might have health benefits
-Might force you to exercise more to lose weight.
- Proteins in fat might be good.
Hey Stolyar, what is the best strategy to come up with alternate causes in a hurry?
A) is irrelevant
B) supports only the other studies and does not explain the discrepancy
D) supports only the first study and does not explain the discrepancy with the other studies
E) support only the other studies and does not explain the discrepancy
C) suggests one way that those who lose weight can have a shorter life expectancy, but also does not necessarily dispute the alternative studies, because the weight loss due to smoking is due one specific way that the weight could be loss. This suggests that the reason the study was contrary to that of others is the study did not properly exclude specific unhealthy forms of weight loss (e.g., smoking) when trying to draw conclusions about the weight loss in general. Hence, C is a plausible explanation for the discrepancy.
The quickest way to find alternative strategies is to look for the one that does not directly contradict either of the two seemingly contradictory premisses.
Former Senior Instructor, Manhattan GMAT and VeritasPrep
Vice President, Midtown NYC Investment Bank, Structured Finance IT
MFE, Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley, Class of 2005
MBA, Anderson School of Management, UCLA, Class of 1993