I think that it is D. Clearly indicates a faulty causal relation "if..then" in the strong conclusion.
A - This is not inductive reasoning (specific to general)
B - The argument never presupposes that "the proportion of them who become short adults will decrease".
C - Does not quote any exceptional case.
E - Not proving any "lack of such state of affairs"
Tall children can generally reach high shelves easily. Short children can generally reach high shelves only with difficulty. It is known that short children are more likely than are tall children to become short adults. Therefore, if short children are taught to reach high shelves easily, the proportion of them who become short adults will decrease.
A reasoning error in the argument is that the argument
(A) attributes a characteristic of an individual member of a group to the group as a whole
(B) presupposes that which is to be proved
(C) refutes a generalization by mean of an exceptional case
(D) assumes a causal relationship where only a correlation has be indicated
(E) take lack of evidence for the existence of a state of affairs as evidence that there can be no such state of affairs
Thnx & Rgds,