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# Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing

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Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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29 May 2012, 11:37
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Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing plants to realize economies of scale.
It is true that as the capacity of a manufacturing operation rises, costs per unit of output fall as plant size approaches “minimum efficient scale,” where the cost per unit of output reaches a minimum, determined roughly by the state of existing technology and size of the potential market. However, minimum efficient scale cannot be fully realized unless a steady “throughput” (the flow of materials through a plant) is attained. The throughput needed to maintain the optimal scale of production requires careful coordination not only of the flow of goods through the production process, but also of the flow of input from suppliers and the flow of output to wholesalers and final consumers. If throughput falls below a critical point, unit costs rise sharply and profits disappear. A manufacturer’s fixed costs and “sunk costs” (original capital investment in the physical plant) do not decrease when production declines due to inadequate supplies of raw materials, problems on the factory floor, or inefficient sales networks. Consequently, potential economies of scale are based on the physical and engineering characteristics of the production facilities—that is, on tangible capital—but realized economies of scale are operational and organizational, and depend on knowledge, skills, experience, and teamwork—that is, on organized human capabilities, or intangible capital.

The importance of investing in intangible capital becomes obvious when one looks at what happens in new capital-intensive manufacturing industries. Such industries are quickly dominated, not by the first firms to acquire technologically sophisticated plants of theoretically optimal size, but rather by the first to exploit the full potential of such plants. Once some firms achieve this, a market becomes extremely hard to enter. Challengers must construct comparable plants and do so after the first movers have already worked out problems with suppliers or with new production processes. Challengers must create distribution networks and marketing systems in markets where first movers have all the contacts and know-how. And challengers must recruit management teams to compete with those that have already mastered these functional and strategic activities.
1. The passage suggests that in order for a manufacturer in a capital-intensive industry to have a decisive advantage over competitors making similar products, the manufacturer must
A. be the first in the industry to build production facilities of theoretically optimal size
B. make every effort to keep fixed and sunk costs as low as possible
C. be one of the first to operate its manufacturing plants at minimum efficient scale
D. produce goods of higher quality than those produced by direct competitors
E. stockpile raw materials at production sites in order to ensure a steady flow of such materials
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

2. The passage suggests that which of the following is true of a manufacturer's fixed and sunk costs?
A. The extent to which they are determined by market conditions for the goods being manufactured is frequently underestimated.
B. If they are kept as low as possible, the manufacturer is very likely to realize significant profits.
C. They are the primary factor that determines whether a manufacturer will realize economies of scale.
D. They should be on a par with the fixed and sunk costs of the manufacturer’s competitors.
E. They are not affected by fluctuations in a manufacturing plant’s throughput.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

3. In the context of the passage as a whole, the second paragraph serves primarily to
A. provide an example to support the argument presented in the first paragraph
B. evaluate various strategies discussed in the first paragraph
C. introduce evidence that undermines the argument presented in the first paragraph
D. anticipate possible objections to the argument presented in the first paragraph
E. demonstrate the potential dangers of a commonly used strategy
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

4. The passage LEAST supports the inference that a manufacturer's throughput could be adversely affected by
A. a mistake in judgment regarding the selection of a wholesaler
B. a breakdown in the factory's machinery
C. a labor dispute on the factory floor
D. an increase in the cost per unit of output
E. a drop in the efficiency of the sales network
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

5. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. point out the importance of intangible capital for realizing economies of scale in manufacturing
B. show that manufacturers frequently gain a competitive advantage from investment in large manufacturing facilities
C. argue that large manufacturing facilities often fail because of inadequate investment in both tangible and intangible capital
D. suggest that most new industries are likely to be dominated by firms that build large manufacturing plants early
E. explain why large manufacturing plants usually do not help manufacturers achieve economies of scale
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

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Re: OG 13 - RC [#permalink]

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29 May 2012, 11:45
plz prepare more explanations
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Re: OG 13 - RC [#permalink]

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30 May 2012, 20:05
Easy passage should have completed in 7 minutes .
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Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2012, 14:57
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Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2013, 21:15
Can any one pls explain me 1st and 5th questions below?
1. The passage suggests that in order for a manufacturer in a capital-intensive industry to have a decisive advantage over competitors making similar products, the manufacturer must
A. be the first in the industry to build production facilities of theoretically optimal size
B. make every effort to keep fixed and sunk costs as low as possible
C. be one of the first to operate its manufacturing plants at minimum efficient scale
D. produce goods of higher quality than those produced by direct competitors
E. stockpile raw materials at production sites in order to ensure a steady flow of such materials

Here a, b, d gets directly eliminated. I am confused between a and e.

5. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. point out the importance of intangible capital for realizing economies of scale in manufacturing
B. show that manufacturers frequently gain a competitive advantage from investment in large manufacturing facilities
C. argue that large manufacturing facilities often fail because of inadequate investment in both tangible and intangible capital
D. suggest that most new industries are likely to be dominated by firms that build large manufacturing plants early
E. explain why large manufacturing plants usually do not help manufacturers achieve economies of scale

5th Qn - I am confused between a and e
a - talks about intangible capital importance. Last line of 1st parra says, for potential economies of scale, investment in tangible capital needed and for realized economies of scale, investment in intagible capital needed. So , a becomes part of primary purpose. Pls correct me if i am wrong here.
e - 1st line of 1st para says, manufacturer needs to do more than constructing large sized plants to acheive economies of scale. So, large plans need not necessarily acheive economies of scale. So, why can't e be agreed to?
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Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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26 May 2013, 09:48
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ernesto wrote:
Can any one pls explain me 1st and 5th questions below?
1. The passage suggests that in order for a manufacturer in a capital-intensive industry to have a decisive advantage over competitors making similar products, the manufacturer must
A. be the first in the industry to build production facilities of theoretically optimal size
B. make every effort to keep fixed and sunk costs as low as possible
C. be one of the first to operate its manufacturing plants at minimum efficient scale
D. produce goods of higher quality than those produced by direct competitors
E. stockpile raw materials at production sites in order to ensure a steady flow of such materials

Here a, b, d gets directly eliminated. I am confused between a and e.

5. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. point out the importance of intangible capital for realizing economies of scale in manufacturing
B. show that manufacturers frequently gain a competitive advantage from investment in large manufacturing facilities
C. argue that large manufacturing facilities often fail because of inadequate investment in both tangible and intangible capital
D. suggest that most new industries are likely to be dominated by firms that build large manufacturing plants early
E. explain why large manufacturing plants usually do not help manufacturers achieve economies of scale

5th Qn - I am confused between a and e
a - talks about intangible capital importance. Last line of 1st parra says, for potential economies of scale, investment in tangible capital needed and for realized economies of scale, investment in intagible capital needed. So , a becomes part of primary purpose. Pls correct me if i am wrong here.
e - 1st line of 1st para says, manufacturer needs to do more than constructing large sized plants to acheive economies of scale. So, large plans need not necessarily acheive economies of scale. So, why can't e be agreed to?

The main idea of passage is "minimum efficient scale", which is connected to intangible capital in 1st paragraph. In the 2nd paragraph. Told you that you will dominate the industries if you achieved that scale. Competitor must do more to compete with you. (A) properly stated the main idea.

(E), passage does not discussed the reason why manufacturers not achieve their scale. Thus incorrect.
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Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2014, 00:03
CEADE in 10 mins 23 secs ..
seems to be a very poor performance..what should be the difficulty level of this passage ? i hope not below 600..
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Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2014, 09:28
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sa2222 wrote:

Hey mate, the OA's are already there..click the spoiler button below each question to find the answer..

-Vardhaman
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Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2014, 10:21
CEEDA Took total 9:45 and 3:40 for the passage.
Need to gear up big time....
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Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2014, 10:22
vards wrote:
sa2222 wrote:

Hey mate, the OA's are already there..click the spoiler button below each question to find the answer..

-Vardhaman

thanks
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Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2014, 09:28
Can somebody in GMATCLUB tell me how to set timer for RC passage of OG 13th?
How can I transfer my RC answers to my workbook to record my performance?
Thank you.
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Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2014, 02:30
Expert's post
14 mins
All correct but last one.
This is a bummer. Passage should be medium level difficulty(what say guys?)
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Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2015, 06:30
I am confused with 4th Question. Doesn't author mention in lines 15 through 19 that the throughput actually depends on the increase in the cost per unit of the output. I crossed of D for this reason.

Is it because the statement in option D is more like "cause effect" --> throughput decline causes the cost per unit increase and not viceversa?
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Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2015, 00:17
Could some one explain how Q3 is A.
How to identify if the last paragraph contains an example when example term is not explicitly mentioned?
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Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2015, 11:31
Paragraph - 1 : Manufac have to concentrate more than building plants & machinery

Paragraph - 2 : Minimum efficient scale requires not only on technology but throughput ( sale/production of goods ) but on the intangible capital. Discusses problems associated with inflow and out flow of goods / raw materials. Introduces definitions of -

Potential economies of scale ( tangible )= Based on the physical and engineering characteristics
Realized economies of scale ( intangible )= Human skills

Paragraph - 3 : Stresses the importances & Challenge of intanglible capital to attain economies of scale.

1. The passage suggests that in order for a manufacturer in a capital-intensive industry to have a decisive advantage over competitors making similar products, the manufacturer must -

Answer is option (C) - Clearly follows from the second paragraph

2. The passage suggests that which of the following is true of a manufacturer's fixed and sunk costs?

Answer is option (E) - Clearly follows from the second paragraph

Quote:
A manufacturer’s fixed costs and “sunk costs” (original capital investment in the physical plant) do not decrease when production declines due to inadequate supplies of raw materials, problems on the factory floor, or inefficient sales networks.

3. In the context of the passage as a whole, the second paragraph serves primarily to

Answer is option (A) - Clearly follows from the second paragraph

The second paragraph extends the claim made by the author in the first paragraph

4. The passage LEAST supports the inference that a manufacturer's throughput could be adversely affected by

What is throughput -
Quote:
However, minimum efficient scale cannot be fully realized unless a steady “throughput” (the flow of materials through a plant) is attained. The throughput needed to maintain the optimal scale of production requires careful coordination not only of the flow of goods through the production process, but also of the flow of input from suppliers and the flow of output to wholesalers and final consumers.

Our must be something which is not related to input/output of goods /raw materials.

So, option D is our answer.

5. The primary purpose of the passage is to

Answer is undoubtedly (A) { Summarizing all the paragraphs }
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Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2016, 11:16
CEADA...took 11 minutes to finish this one. I guess the passage is a relatively easier one and the combination of a focused read and note taking should get the job done.
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Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing [#permalink]

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07 May 2016, 02:08
What can we say about the difficulty of 3rd and 5th question? 700+?
Re: Manufacturers have to do more than build large manufacturing   [#permalink] 07 May 2016, 02:08
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