Many criminologists argue that a substantial increase in the number of police personnel "walking the beat" should lead to lowering rates of crime, as well as lowering fears about public safety
, a surge in public confidence in the police, and a lessening of the economic burden of street crime.a) lowering rates of crime, as well as lowering fears about public safety
'rates of crime' is wrong usage. for ex. tax rates of Europe, marginal rates of substitution. Also, 'lowering rates...' is not parallel with', 'a surge...' and 'a lessening of ..'
the entities in parallel are noun phrases == noun + prepositional phrase type.
b) a lowering of crime rates
and of fears about public safetyParallelism(stated in option a) maintained.
c) a lowering of crime rates
, along with fears about public safety
Parallelism is ruined because crime rates and fears are parallel (within the parallel structure). But this option states that 'lowering of crime rates' and 'fears about public safety' are parallel. This is wrong parallelism.
d) crime rates being lowered, along with fears about public safety
e) crime rates and fears about public safety being lowered, with.D & E not parallel for reasons mentioned in A
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What are modifiers ??