(E) it is.
(A): There is no relation drawn in the question between New York and other locations. Incorrect.
(B): There is no previous argument here. Incorrect.
(C): This is true (just five data points do not constitute conclusive evidence), but it does not present a fatal flaw in the author's reasoning. Incorrect.
(D): There is no causal relationship being assumed, just correlations. Incorrect.
(E): CORRECT. The coldest winters were followed by the hottest summers, and the hottest winters were also followed by the hottest summers. In all cases, extreme temperatures in winter were followed by extreme temperatures in summer. The author ends up supporting the claim he/she wants to refute.
The catch in option (E) is to realize that extreme temperature in winters need not mean extreme cold - it could also mean unnaturally hot weather in winter, uncharacteristic of the season, and so considered extreme.
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