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Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India

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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink] New post 04 May 2013, 09:04
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.

D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

Choice D is incorrect for two reasons.
1. The first error is a parallelism error. This sentence has two markers “either… or…”. What follows the first marker must follow the second marker also. Here “either” is followed by “fashioned from…” while “or” is followed by “from…”. So the first marker is followed by a verb-ed modifier while the second marker is followed by prepositional phrase. This leads to the parallelism error in this sentence. Note that “fashioned” cannot be taken for understood here. It has to be mentioned to maintain the parallelism.
2. This sentence has “and”. The independent clause before “and” has “Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India” as the subject and “date” as the verb. They agree in number as well as make sense with each other. However, the clause after “and” verb. The subject for the clause following “and” remains the same. We have “fashioned” here which is not a verb.
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

If “fashioned” is the verb in this sentence, then the sentence will means that the “images of deity” fashioned something which is illogical. From the sentence, we know that these deities were made of either spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan schist.

Notice that this sentence should be written in passive voice to convey this meaning. So we need a helping verb before “fashioned” to make it a passive verb.

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

Choice E corrects this error where the first part of the sentence is in active voice while the second one is in passive.

Hope this helps.
Shraddha



How the word "date" is a verb in the SC?

Please explain.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink] New post 04 May 2013, 18:13
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Oh can you please go through this link and you may become clear about the verb date.

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/date

HTH
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink] New post 06 Sep 2013, 19:41
piyatiwari wrote:
Answer is E.

Given : Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the
Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan
grey schist.

Simplifying the given sentence:
May of the deities date from the time of X empire, fashioned either from A or B.

If we understand basic meaning of the sentence, we will realize that not the kushan empire but the deities are fashioned from something.

So, the right sentence is:
May of the deities date from the time of X empire and fashioned either from A or from B.

A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from - Correct



Excellent explanation, Can some one explain me why the use of and was necessary?
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink] New post 06 Jan 2014, 01:52
iDisappear wrote:
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the
Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan
grey schist.
A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from


The past participle "fashioned" in A and B is a bit ambiguous in my opinion. Does it refer to the empire or the images?

Also with A: "Mathura or...Gandharan" is not parallel to "from the... of Mathura" we need a from after or, so A is gone

B) "from either" is weird, it implies that something was fashioned from either of the two, which implies that it could be fashioned from both. "either" means "at least one of them" in this context. "Either from" on the other hand, correctly implies that it was taken either from x OR from y. Also, the "or" later on doesn't make sense with what this option says right now. "We can drink water from either OF the wells" is correct, however "we can drink water from either the left OR the right well" is incorrect. So B is gone

C) the ", either fashioned" portion looks weird. What does fashioned modify? empire, or images? Also it just feels like the option is screaming for a "which", this would require a "was/were" for the past participle otherwise we do not have correct s-v agreement. But we have images and we have empire, so which of the "was/were" would be correct? Also, the parallel structure is wrong, we need a "from" after the last "or". In other words, this option is a complete mess. C is gone

D) did the images do the fashioning? That's what this option implies. Plus, the "from" indicate that the images fashioned FROM those locations. The meaning is completely distorted in this option, D is gone.

E) the "were" corrects the ambiguity, we now know that the images themselves did not fashion anything, they themselves WERE fashioned. We have a "either..or" structure and for correct parallelism, we need "from" in both x and y. We have that, so E is correct.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink] New post 05 May 2014, 17:58
Hi Shraddha,

Can you please explain a nagging issue:

1) If there is a comma separating two clauses, don't the two clauses need some sort of coordinating conjunction such as "and or but" and don't the two clauses need to be independent?

2) I eliminated A and B because the second part of the clause because it's not independent. Was that wrong?

3) What is the general rule when we have a comma with a coordinating conjunction. Conversely, what is the general rule when we have a comma without a coordinating conjunction?

Thanks!
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink] New post 12 Jul 2014, 02:15
it is simple "Either X or Y '

X and Y should be same form and structure :)
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink] New post 17 Jul 2014, 23:45
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Here is OG's explaination

"Th e sentence makes two claims about the earliest
known images of Hindu deities in India: Th ey
date from the Kushan Empire, and they are made
from sandstone or schist. Th e clearest, most
eff ective way to incorporate these two claims into
a single sentence is to provide two parallel
predicates for the single subject, the earliest known
images of Hindu deities in India. Th e two options of
media, presented as either/or choices, must also be
given in parallel structure: either from … or from …
or from either … or. …

A Placement of the modifi er fashioned …
suggests that the Empire (the closest noun),
not the images of the deities, was fashioned
out of these materials; to parallel either from,
the preposition from should also follow or.
B Parallelism requires that either precede the
fi rst appearance of from or that the second
appearance of from be eliminated.
C As in A and B, the placement of the
modifi er after Empire is misleading;
parallelism requires that the phrase
fashioned from, or another comparable
verb and preposition, follow or.
D Parallelism requires that a verb follow or,
since a verb follows either.
E Correct. Two verbs, date and were fashioned,
introduce parallel predicates for the subject,
earliest known images; the choices of media
are correctly presented with the structure
either from … or from.
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink] New post 18 Jul 2014, 07:32
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russ9 wrote:
Hi Shraddha,

Can you please explain a nagging issue:

1) If there is a comma separating two clauses, don't the two clauses need some sort of coordinating conjunction such as "and or but" and don't the two clauses need to be independent?

2) I eliminated A and B because the second part of the clause because it's not independent. Was that wrong?

3) What is the general rule when we have a comma with a coordinating conjunction. Conversely, what is the general rule when we have a comma without a coordinating conjunction?

Thanks!


Hi russ9,

I apologize for reverting so late. But then better late than never. :-)

Let's clarify all your doubts now.

1) Yes, your understanding is correct. Only a Comma CANNOT join two Independent Clause (IC). We need Comma + FANBOYS to join two ICs. These FANBOYS are called coordinating conjunctions.

2) I am afraid you did not eliminate Choices A and B for the right reasons. We CANNOT have ICs after comma. That will lead to incorrect sentence structure as only Comma will be joining two ICS. This is not possible. In Choices A, B, and C, modification of "fashioned" is not correct. The Verb-ed Modifiers in GMAT modifies the preceding Noun Entity. Here the preceding Noun Entity is "the Kushan Empire". Now this modification does not make sense because according to the intended meaning, the Empire was not made up of the mentioned material. The earliest known images were made of these materials.

3) Again, to reiterate, Comm + FANBOYS join only two ICs. Just a Comma can join an Independent Clause and a Dependent Clause.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
SJ
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink] New post 21 Jul 2014, 19:11
Wooof thanks Daagh! How clearly you explained it :-D
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink] New post 27 Jul 2014, 07:59
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.

D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

Choice D is incorrect for two reasons.
1. The first error is a parallelism error. This sentence has two markers “either… or…”. What follows the first marker must follow the second marker also. Here “either” is followed by “fashioned from…” while “or” is followed by “from…”. So the first marker is followed by a verb-ed modifier while the second marker is followed by prepositional phrase. This leads to the parallelism error in this sentence. Note that “fashioned” cannot be taken for understood here. It has to be mentioned to maintain the parallelism.
2. This sentence has “and”. The independent clause before “and” has “Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India” as the subject and “date” as the verb. They agree in number as well as make sense with each other. However, the clause after “and” verb. The subject for the clause following “and” remains the same. We have “fashioned” here which is not a verb.
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

If “fashioned” is the verb in this sentence, then the sentence will means that the “images of deity” fashioned something which is illogical. From the sentence, we know that these deities were made of either spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan schist.

Notice that this sentence should be written in passive voice to convey this meaning. So we need a helping verb before “fashioned” to make it a passive verb.

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist.

Choice E corrects this error where the first part of the sentence is in active voice while the second one is in passive.

Hope this helps.
Shraddha



Good explanation

I am confused,
why can't we just regard the "fashioned either from the ...." as an adverbial modifier which modifies "known imagines " ?
Is the sentence make a sense If we reorganize it into "fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist, many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan Empire. "

Thx verrrrrry much
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India [#permalink] New post 28 Jul 2014, 11:14
Expert's post
ZoeHu wrote:

Good explanation

I am confused,
why can't we just regard the "fashioned either from the ...." as an adverbial modifier which modifies "known imagines " ?
Is the sentence make a sense If we reorganize it into "fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist, many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan Empire. "

Thx verrrrrry much


Hi ZoeHu,

Thanks very much for your appreciation. :-)

Any Verb-ed Modifier such as "fashioned" in this case is ALWAYS a Noun Modifier that modifies the preceding Noun Entity. If there is Verb between the Noun Entity intended to be modified and the Verb-ed Modifier, then this Verb-ed Modifier CANNOT jump over the Verb to modify that Noun Entity.

Hence, it is NOT possible for the Verb-ed Modifier "fashioned" to jump over the Verb "date" to modify "images".

However, we can certainly place this modifier, as you have suggested, in the beginning of the sentence. In that case, this Verb-ed Modifier will correctly modifiy the SUbject of the main clause "Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities". The sentence can be rewritten as:

Fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from Gandharan grey schist, many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the
Kushan empire.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
SJ
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Re: Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India   [#permalink] 28 Jul 2014, 11:14
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