Many scholars have theorized that
economic development, particularly
industrialization and urbanization, con-
Line tributes to the growth of participatory
(5) democracy; according to this theory, it
would seem logical that women would
both demand and gain suffrage in ever
greater numbers whenever economic
development expanded their economic
(10) opportunities. However, the economic
development theory is inadequate to
explain certain historical facts about the
implementation of women’s suffrage.
For example, why was women’s suf-
(15) frage, instituted nationally in the United
States in 1920, not instituted nationally
in Switzerland until the 1970’s? Indus-
trialization was well advanced in both
countries by 1920: over 33 percent
(20) of American workers were employed
in various industries, as compared
to 44 percent of Swiss workers.
Granted, Switzerland and the United
States diverged in the degree to
(25) which the expansion of industry coin-
cided with the degree of urbanization:
only 29 percent of the Swiss population
lived in cities of 10,000 or more inhabi-
tants by 1920. However, urbanization
(30) cannot fully explain women’s suffrage.
Within the United States prior to 1920,
for example, only less urbanized
states had granted women suffrage.
Similarly, less urbanized countries
(35) such as Cambodia and Ghana had
voting rights for women long before
Switzerland did. It is true that Switzer-
land’s urbanized cantons (political
subdivisions) generally enacted
(40) women’s suffrage legislation earlier
than did rural cantons. However,
these cantons often shared other
characteristics—similar linguistic back-
grounds and strong leftist parties—that
may help to explain this phenomenon.
The passage suggests which of the following about urbanization in Switzerland and the United States by 1920?
A. A greater percentage of Swiss industrial workers than American industrial workers lived in urban areas.
B. There were more cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants in Switzerland than there were in the United States.
C. Swiss workers living in urban areas were more likely to be employed in industry than were American workers living in urban areas.
D. Urbanized areas of Switzerland were more likely than similar areas in the United States to have strong leftist parties.
E. A greater percentage of the United States population than the Swiss population lived in urban areas.