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# Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th

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Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2004, 04:59
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Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

OG16 SC113
Category: Rhetorical construction; Logical predication
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2014, 20:02
marine wrote:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Category: Rhetorical construction; Logical predication

Hi e-gmat,

My analysis on this question. Could you please review and let me know if my thought process is correct -

Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation:instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

(A) Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is

Analysis : IC, Noun + Noun Modifier; Adverb, IC
Error :
1. a tool for private conversation is N+NM, hence can modify radio or telephone (either)
2. Instead, it is – parallel IC, hence it refers back to parallel noun of “Marconi’s conception” instead of radio

(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

Analysis: IC, Noun + Noun Mod, But + IC
Which in this case would refer to radio (noun in parallel IC) or conversation (closest noun)?

(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

Analysis: IC + that + modifier; instead, IC
Correct option

(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, modifier
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom
2. Which refer to telephone

(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, <<can’t get rest of the structure
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2014, 05:42
conceived of is idiom and

A is noun form -->out , D and E out ( conceived to be )

C is better parallelism than B
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2014, 23:11
Mission2012 wrote:
marine wrote:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Category: Rhetorical construction; Logical predication

Hi e-gmat,

My analysis on this question. Could you please review and let me know if my thought process is correct -

Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation:instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

(A) Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is

Analysis : IC, Noun + Noun Modifier; Adverb, IC
Error :
1. a tool for private conversation is N+NM, hence can modify radio or telephone (either)
2. Instead, it is – parallel IC, hence it refers back to parallel noun of “Marconi’s conception” instead of radio

(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

Analysis: IC, Noun + Noun Mod, But + IC
Which in this case would refer to radio (noun in parallel IC) or conversation (closest noun)?

(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

Analysis: IC + that + modifier; instead, IC
Correct option

(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, modifier
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom
2. Which refer to telephone

(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, <<can’t get rest of the structure
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom

Hi Nishant,
Thank you for posting your query here and a very good analysis I must say!

SENTENCE STRUCTURE

Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation:
• instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

OPTION A: Incorrect

1) The way this sentence is worded, it suggests that Marconi’s conception was a substitute for the telephone. This meaning is absolutely illogical because an idea cannot be a substitute for a tool. From the context, we can understand that the radio was conceived as a substitute for the telephone. Hence, this sentence has meaning error.
2) The pronoun “it” seems to illogically refer to “Marconi’s conception”.

The Noun + Noun modifier “a tool for private conversation” modifies “telephone” correctly, since logically we know that radio is not a tool for private conversation.

OPTION B: Incorrect

1) “but” acts as a parallel market in this choice and is followed by a “which” clause. However, this “which” clause is not parallel to anything that lies on the left side of the marker.
2) Also, it is not clear what the modifier “which” refers to in this sentence. It can either refer to “radio” or to “telephone”.

As you have mentioned, “but” should be followed by an independent clause. However, the clause starting with “which” is not an independent clause.

OPTION C: Correct

This option changes the subject from “Marconi’s conception” to “Marconi”. This removes the meaning error of the original sentence.
Also, “it” in the second clause clearly refers to radio.

Here, “that” doesn’t refer to radio. It refers to “a tool for private conversation”.

OPTION D: Incorrect

1) “Conceived of X to be Y” is incorrect idiomatic usage. The correct usage is “conceived of X as Y”.
2) The relative pronoun modifier “which” seems to modify “telephone”. This gives an illogical meaning.
Note that, “which” can’t jump over “to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone” and modify “radio” since this modifier is not one unified phrase.

OPTION E: Incorrect

1) This choice repeats the idiom error of option D.
2) The phrase “other than what” is wordy and redundant. It gives the meaning similar to “precisely the opposite”.

Hope this helps!
Deepak
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2014, 01:24
The question is basically testing Idiom and Pronoun usage.

A: Conception X was as Y
B: Conceived X as Y
C: Conceived X as Y
D: Conceived X to be Y
E: Conceived X to be Y

Logic: Correct Idiom: Conceived X as Y. So A, D and E are eliminated

B: "which" : goes back to 'conversation' rather than back to 'radio'.

E: Correct. Correct Idiom, Present Perfect tense and no ambiguity.

Hope it helps!

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2015, 01:04
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Can someone please explain the error in option B. I read MGMAT and BTG explanation regarding the same but its still not clear to me.

Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

As per Mitch:
Quote:
http://www.beatthegmat.com/og-12th-ed-marconi-conception-t62687.html#280168
In B, the pronoun which seems to refer -- incorrectly -- to the telephone, but the radio is the tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
>> Request someone to explain it further with example.

As per Ron
Quote:
http://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/forums/post36053.html#p36053
that choice says "BUT which..."
this means that "which..." is the second part of a parallel structure. the first part of this parallel structure is "a tool for private conversation".
BOTH parts of this parallel structure modify "telephone". (this is how parallel structures work: both/all parts of them MUST have the same grammatical function.)

After cutting the fluff:
as a substitute for the telephone
but which
is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

Does this mean
X conceived of Y as Z but <..>
What follows but shall be || to Z.

Option C : Correct:
Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone;
instead, it has become precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2015, 06:15
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JarvisR wrote:
Can someone please explain the error in option B.

Hi JarvisR, B mentions: ....but which is...

Whenever we have this kind of structure (but which, and that, but that etc.), there has to be a corresponding parallel structure to the left of the conjunction (and/but).

In B, there is no corresponding parallel structure on the left hand side of but. Hence, B is not correct.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2015, 06:23
EducationAisle wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
Can someone please explain the error in option B.

Hi JarvisR, B mentions: ....but which is...

Whenever we have this kind of structure (but which, and that, but that etc.), there has to be a corresponding parallel structure to the left of the conjunction (and/but).

In B, there is no corresponding parallel structure on the left hand side of but. Hence, B is not correct.

I appreciate your inputs on the shared query.

This seems to be in line with Ron's explanation. Can u please confirm, if i understood it correctly (i have mentioned the structure breakdown in my original post).

Also, some of the posts point that "which" links to telephone. To me its ambiguous, can be telephone/radio.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2015, 06:42
Hi JarvisR, you mention:

What follows but shall be || to Z.

As I mentioned in my above post, what follows but is: which is..., and so, there has to be a corresponding which structure on the Left hand side of but.

Currently, there is no "which" structure on the Left hand side of but. In other words, what follows but is actually not parallel to anything; in fact, that is the problem with B.

So, it would not be appropriate to mention that what follows but is parallel to Z.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2015, 06:50
Thanks Ashish. Actually even i m mentioned the same.
Quote:
X conceived of Y as Z but <..>
What follows but shall be || to Z.

But in B, "which is" is not || to "as a substitute for the telephone " .

Can u also share ur views on query#2:
Quote:
Also, some of the posts point that "which" links to telephone. To me its ambiguous, can be telephone/radio.

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2015, 07:09
JarvisR wrote:
Can u also share ur views on query#2:
Quote:
Also, some of the posts point that "which" links to telephone. To me its ambiguous, can be telephone/radio.

Hi JarvisR, I think we are doing a bit of circulation argumentation here. What I have been saying is that which is not really parallel to anything. So, it's a moot point discussing what "which" is referring to.

In other words, had there been a which structure on the LHS of but, then whatever the which on the LHS was referring to, which on the RHS would refer to the same entity. Since we don't have a which on the LHS, we can't figure out what "which" on the RHS is referring to.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2015, 00:47
Can someone explain why E is not the answer ?
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2015, 05:19
I believe that the construction is perfectly fine:

The conception was something but it has become something else. It denotes the change that has happened.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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15 May 2015, 17:54
See A as B/ regard A as B/ think A as B/ conceive of A as B/ refer to A as B

Only C works
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2015, 12:32
C) looks good

'Conceive of X as' is the right idiom
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2015, 15:45
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

1 Since "Marconi conceived" is active eliminate A. 2 Eliminate D and E because the idiom is "conceived as" 3 Eliminate B since "which" refers to the telephone
A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2015, 00:32
A. Incorrect - Because in this sentence the subject is "Marconi's conception" which do not agree to the latter part that starts after "it is". Why? because, "Conception" cannot be a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

B. Incorrect - Which is used incorrectly

C. CORRECT - The sentence says that "Marconi came up with "Radio" as a way of private communication which could substitute "Telephone"; instead, it has become opposit (past perfect for is used) because "Telephone" has already become a tool if communication with a large public.

D. Incorrect - Use of "to be" is incorrect

E. Incorrect - Use of "to be" is incorrect
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2015, 12:42
What does "IT" refer to in option C.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2015, 19:07
The correct Idiom is :

Conceive of x as y....

"Conceive of x to be y " is incorrect usage.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2015, 06:58
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become For me the only correct answer because of the 'conceived ......... has become' construction

D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2016, 09:26
egmat wrote:
Mission2012 wrote:
marine wrote:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Category: Rhetorical construction; Logical predication

Hi e-gmat,

My analysis on this question. Could you please review and let me know if my thought process is correct -

Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation:instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

(A) Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is

Analysis : IC, Noun + Noun Modifier; Adverb, IC
Error :
1. a tool for private conversation is N+NM, hence can modify radio or telephone (either)
2. Instead, it is – parallel IC, hence it refers back to parallel noun of “Marconi’s conception” instead of radio

(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

Analysis: IC, Noun + Noun Mod, But + IC
Which in this case would refer to radio (noun in parallel IC) or conversation (closest noun)?

(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

Analysis: IC + that + modifier; instead, IC
Correct option

(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, modifier
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom
2. Which refer to telephone

(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, <<can’t get rest of the structure
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom

Hi Nishant,
Thank you for posting your query here and a very good analysis I must say!

SENTENCE STRUCTURE

Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation:
• instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

OPTION A: Incorrect

1) The way this sentence is worded, it suggests that Marconi’s conception was a substitute for the telephone. This meaning is absolutely illogical because an idea cannot be a substitute for a tool. From the context, we can understand that the radio was conceived as a substitute for the telephone. Hence, this sentence has meaning error.
2) The pronoun “it” seems to illogically refer to “Marconi’s conception”.

The Noun + Noun modifier “a tool for private conversation” modifies “telephone” correctly, since logically we know that radio is not a tool for private conversation.

OPTION B: Incorrect

1) “but” acts as a parallel market in this choice and is followed by a “which” clause. However, this “which” clause is not parallel to anything that lies on the left side of the marker.
2) Also, it is not clear what the modifier “which” refers to in this sentence. It can either refer to “radio” or to “telephone”.

As you have mentioned, “but” should be followed by an independent clause. However, the clause starting with “which” is not an independent clause.

OPTION C: Correct

This option changes the subject from “Marconi’s conception” to “Marconi”. This removes the meaning error of the original sentence.
Also, “it” in the second clause clearly refers to radio.

Here, “that” doesn’t refer to radio. It refers to “a tool for private conversation”.

OPTION D: Incorrect

1) “Conceived of X to be Y” is incorrect idiomatic usage. The correct usage is “conceived of X as Y”.
2) The relative pronoun modifier “which” seems to modify “telephone”. This gives an illogical meaning.
Note that, “which” can’t jump over “to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone” and modify “radio” since this modifier is not one unified phrase.

OPTION E: Incorrect

1) This choice repeats the idiom error of option D.
2) The phrase “other than what” is wordy and redundant. It gives the meaning similar to “precisely the opposite”.

Hope this helps!
Deepak

" It" in option A refers to the subject "Marconi’s conception" whereas in option C "It" refers to "radio" . Please explain how it is referring to radio in place of the subject of the first independent clause.
A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th   [#permalink] 04 Jan 2016, 09:26

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