Thanks for awesome articles - this article and many others - that you and e-gmat
team have posted. Now coming to my doubt about the questions:
Q1 - I chose A. I discarded B, because I thought "grayed and white bones" change the meaning. Grayed - past participle - implies bones have been greyed by something or someone. The original statement, however, never says that. I later realized - only after reading the explanation that shined is wrong too. Please clarify, if the 2nd statement were -
[color=#003471]grayed and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps
- would it be correct?[/color]
PS: Additional question - not related to original question - Is my if then construction in the sentence above is right(red colored)?
Q2 - I chose C, but I am confused between A & C. Do we necessarily need "did" in this sentence. The sentence says -
Researchers from the XYZ notified about something to the FDA earlier than researchers from the ABC.
I think above sentence can only mean - Researchers from XYZ notified earlier than Researchers from the ABC - and not researchers from XYZ notified to FDA earlier than to researchers from the ABC. IMO - to imply the 2nd meaning use of "to" is necessary after "earlier than." Although I understand C is better, I am not sure whether A is wrong."
Thanks in advance..........
1. A male bowerbird uses just about anything ̶ gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps ̶ to decorate his courtyard to attract a female.
A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps - shining is not parallel to discarded. The former is a present participle and the latter, past participle.
B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps - shined/discarded and grayed - all past participles behaving as adjectives
C. graying and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps - discarding distorts meaning
D. gray and white bones, shiny pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps - discarding distorts meaning
Your analysis for the second question is absolutely perfect. However, you have not selected the correct answer for the first one.
Choice B is not the correct answer of the first question. The correct answer is A.
A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps: Correct. Notice that all the entities are noun phrases. They all start with adjective followed by a noun. Yes, all the adjectives are different in structure – “gray” and “white” are colors, “shining” has “ing” construction, and “discarded” ends with “ed”. But all these three entities are adjectives because all these three expressions modify their following nouns. Hence, despite being different in structure, all these noun entities are parallel to each other because all the starting words act as adjectives, no matter what form they are in.
B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps: Incorrect. “shining” is the correct adjective to precede a noun entity.
Hope this helps.