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Markers in Parallelism

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Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 17 Sep 2012, 11:20
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MARKERS FOR PARALLEL LIST


Hi folks,
Parallelism is one of the most heavily tested concepts in GMAT. Non-natives struggle with this concept because most of them study this concept for the first time when they start preparing for the GMAT. To help you understand this concept better, we have decided to cover a few topics in parallelism through a few articles. In this article, we cover “Markers in the Parallel List”. This article is one of the per-requisites for our parallelism session in Verbal Live Prep.

How to best benefit from the article?

First of all, read this article thoroughly and internalize it. Then apply these skills to the exercise questions at the end of the article. E-GMAT customers may review this article in conjunction with the 6 parallelism concepts we have in the course. We will also post a few official problems after we get a few more responses. Sincerely apply the skills to make sure that you select the correct answer for the right reasons. Only then can you be certain of success on the GMAT. Also, don't forget to download the PDF at the end of the post.

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WHY TO LEARN ABOUT MARKERS


Most of the times, it becomes difficult to solve an SC problem pertaining to parallelism because we cannot identify the correct list in the sentence. Hence, it is important to learn about the markers in the parallel list as they help us in more than one way. Knowledge of markers has the following benefits:
1. It helps in identifying the correct intended list in the sentence.
2. It helps in ascertaining the correct marker for the list.
3. It helps in making all the entities in the list grammatically as well as logically parallel.

This article is aimed at helping you gain better understanding of the markers so that you are better prepared to handle parallelism problems.

LAWS OF PARALLELISM


Before delving into the markers and learning how to identify a list with the help of these markers, let us take a quick look at the general laws of parallelism:


1. A parallel list always contains a marker.
2. The list contains the appropriate marker to convey the intended meaning through the list.
3. The entities in the list are grammatically as well as logically parallel.

So let us now study a bit more about these laws.

TYPES OF MARKERS


As we said, every parallel list contains a marker. Hence, it is important to learn about them to identify the correct list. Identifying the correct list is half battle won in solving the parallelism problem. Once the correct list is identified, identifying the errors in the entities and making them parallel, both grammatically and logically become really easy.
We can find two kinds of markers in parallel lists – single-word makers and dual-word markers.

SINGLE-WORD MARKERS


As the name suggests, ‘single-word markers’ are the markers that consist of only one word. For example – and, or, but, etc. These markers join two or more entities and appear before the last entity in the list. Let’s take a few example sentences to see the usage of these markers:

SIMPLE EXAMPLE 1:

Image

The sentence gives us general information about Joe. It says that he never goes anywhere without his wallet, his watch, and his umbrella. Notice the presence of “and”. It is one of the most common single-word markers that indicate the presence of a list in the sentence. Hence, the entities joined by “and” make the list in the sentence. The 3 entities joined by “and” are
• Wallet
• Watch
• Umbrella

Image


SIMPLE EXAMPLE 2:

Image

The sentence says that Sue needs something to mark a particular advertisement in the newspaper. She can do the job of highlighting the ad by using a pen, a pencil, or a marker. Notice that “or” is the marker in the sentence that indicates the presence of a list in this sentence. This marker joins 3 similar entities
• a pen
• a pencil
• a marker

COMPLEX EXAMPLE 1:

Image

The sentence says that this year’s drought has led to scarcity of food that has forced the bears to come to town in search of food. They have walked into farmer’s market, broken into cars, and even gotten into people’s kitchen.

This sentence uses one-word marker “and” that joins the three actions done by the bears to look for food. The sentence has a list of three actions done by the bears.
• Have wandered through farmer’s markets
• Have broken into cars after sniffing out fast-food leftovers
• Have ransacked people’s kitchens

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE 1: OGV2#1 (WITH CORRECT ANSWER CHOICE E)

Image

This sentence presents comparison between ants and termites. Just like ants, termites also have a detailed social structure with well-defined jobs. While some reproduce, the others serve the colony. They do this job by looking after the young ones, collecting food, building the nest, or battling intruders.

This OG sentence has two parallel lists. The first list is marked in blue while the second list is marked in purple. Both the lists contain single-word markers – “and” and “or” respectively.

The first list is the main list that defines the main jobs of termites in their society. The second list is the sub-list that defines the actions done under serving the colony. While “and” join two main jobs of termites, “or” joins together the actions done to serve the colony.

DUAL-WORD MARKERS


As the name goes, these markers consist of two words. These dual words always appear together in a list. For example: either… or…, both… and…, from… to…, etc. The list containing ‘dual-word markers’ has only two entities in the list. Let’s take a few examples here:

SIMPLE EXAMPLE 1:

Image

The sentence says that because Sam has too many things to look after, he can do any of the 2 things - either prepare a speech or participate in the inaugural song.
This sentence uses double-word marker “either… or…”. This is so because the sentence talks about options. Sam can do only one of the two things.
Since the option is only between two activities, use of “either… or…” is appropriate. If Sam had to choose one activity among three, then the sentence would use the single-word marker “or”. Note that we cannot use dual-word markers for more than two entities in the list.

SIMPLE EXAMPLE 2:

Image

Image


The sentence says that Mary got two presents for her birthday, an iPad and an iPhone, both Apple products. These entities are joined by the dual-word marker “both… and…”. Both these markers are followed by one entity each. If Mary had gotten more than two presents, then the use of this dual-word marker would not have been appropriate. Then the entities would have been joined together with single-word marker “and”.

COMPLEX EXAMPLE 1:

Image

This sentence talks about the new strain of swine flu. The external genes of this particular strain that is called H3N2v jumped from humans to pigs in the 1990s and circulated in pigs separately from the seasonal human flu H3N2. H3N2v has reportedly killed one human so far.

So this sentence has two lists. The first list is marked in blue. This lists talks about how the external genes of H3N2v spread. The second list, marked in purple uses the dual-word marker “from… to…” to convey how did it spread. The external genes jumped from one entity to another.

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE 1: OGV2#4 (WITH CORRECT ANSWER CHOICE C)

Image

This sentence says that piles of personal papers of Edison prove that his inventions came not in a flash of inspiration. All his work slowly evolved from previous works.
This sentence presents two characteristics of Edison’s inventions. They did not come to life in a flash of inspiration. They slowly evolved from his previous works. These characteristics are presented by dual-word marker “not… but…”. Both the markers are followed by one entity each.

A QUICK LOOK AT THE MARKERS:


Image

Note that this is not the exhaustive list of the markers. This list also does not contain the markers of comparison. Parallelism in comparison will be dealt in separate article.

ERRORS PERTAINING TO PARALLELISM MARKERS


Image


So we learnt that presence of marker in a sentence indicates the presence of a list. GMAC introduces parallelism errors in a sentence in various ways. One of the ways to introduce error is by using inappropriate marker in the list. Using inappropriate marker may include using a marker that changes the intended meaning of the sentence, using a dual-word marker to list more than two entities in a list, using wrong pairs in the dual-word marker, etc.

1. USING INCORRECT MARKER TO CONVEY INTENDED MEANING THROUGH LIST


A list must contain an appropriate marker to correctly convey the intended meaning of the sentence. Incorrect markers may change the intended meaning of a sentence. Let’s take examples to see how this error is introduced, what effect this error has, and how it can be corrected.

SIMPLE EXAMPLE 1:

Image

The sentence looks familiar? Well yes, we have already analyzed this sentence under the heading “Single-Word Markers”. This sentence uses the marker “or” to present options. Sue needs any one of the listed entities to mark the ad in the newspaper. Now let’s replace “or” here with “and”.

Image

Using “and” changes the meaning of the sentence. Now, this sentence does not talk of options. This sentence does not say that Sue needs any one of the listed articles. It now says that Sue needs all the three listed items to mark the ad. Probably, she needs to highlight that ad in a certain manner and that is why she needs all three items. This sentence definitely conveys a different meaning than that conveyed by the original one. Hence if the intended meaning per original sentence has to be communicated, then the second sentence is incorrect because “and” is not the correct marker to convey the intended logical meaning conveyed by “or”. And vice-versa, i.e. if the original meaning is as communicated by second sentence with “and”, then the first sentence changes that intended meaning. Thus, make a note of how meaning communicated by the sentence can change if the marker connecting the list changes.

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE 1: OG 12#17 (WITH CORRECT ANSWER CHOICE D)

Image

This sentence says that the commission has asked the advertisers not to use the word “natural” for those foods that contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives or anything made artificially. Hence the sentence presents option. If the food contain any of one these listed items, then the advertisers cannot call it “natural”.

Now let’s analyze the sentence with incorrect answer choice E:

Image

This sentence is grammatically correct but changes the intended meaning of the sentence. Doing away with “or” has taken away the options. The sentence now means that the food cannot be called natural if it contains all the listed items. But if it does not contain any one of the listed items, then it can be called “natural” because to not have the “natural” tag, it has to have all the listed items. This is certainly not the intended meaning of the sentence. Presence of any one of the listed item will disqualify the food product from the designation of “natural”.

Image


2. USING DUAL-WORD MARKER TO LIST MORE THAN TWO ENTITIES


A list containing dual-word marker can only have two entities in the list. If the list contains more than two items, then it should contain single-word marker and not the dual-word marker. Let’s take an official example that presents this error:

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE 1: OG V2#5

Image

The sentence says that hundreds of species of fish discharge electric currents to do three things:
a. to find and attack prey,
b. to defend themselves,
c. for communicating and navigating.

Note that we are only looking at the marker-related error in this sentence. There are three items listed for which many species of fish discharge electric current. But this list contains dual-word marker “either… or…”. Dual-word markers can only be used to list two entities. Hence use of this marker is incorrect here. Hence we can eliminate all those answer choices that uses dual-word marker.

Now let’s take a look at the correct answer choice E:

Image

This choice replaces the dual-word marker “either… or…” with only “or” to correctly list three items. Use of single word marker “or” is correct to list three items in the list. The sentence clearly communicates that the many species of fish generate electric currents for one of the listed functions.

3. USING INCORRECT PAIR IN DUAL-WORD MARKER


Every dual-word marker has a well-defined usage so it should be used in idiomatically correct fashion, i.e. it must be used with the words that make the correct pair (check the list for dual-word markers above). If the pair is broken by replacing any of the words in the dual-word maker with any other word, then the sentence stands incorrect. This error may also be classified as idiom error. Let’s take an example:

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE 1: OG V2#12

Image

This sentence talks about artist William H. Johnson. His artistic debt to Scandinavia can be very well seen in paintings that range from sensitive portraits of citizens in his wife’s Danish home, Kerteminde, to awe-inspiring views of fjords and mountain peaks in the western and northern regions of Norway.
The correct dual-word marker is “from… to…” and not “from… and…”. Hence this sentence is incorrect because of the pairing of wrong words.

Choice B is the correct answer choice for this OG sentence:

Image

This choice uses the correct words to form the correct dual-word marker.

Image
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Last edited by egmat on 07 Oct 2013, 07:33, edited 11 times in total.
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 17 Sep 2012, 13:47
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Hi Folks,

Solve the following questions on the basis of thiis article:

1. A male bowerbird uses just about anything ̶ gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps ̶ to decorate his courtyard to attract a female.

A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps
B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps
C. graying and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps
D. gray and white bones, shiny pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps

2. The researchers from the North Carolina State University notified about the latest dairy contamination to the officials of the FDA earlier than the researchers from the University of California.

A. earlier than the researchers
B. earlier than were the researchers
C. earlier than did the researchers
D. earlier than the researchers had
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 17 Sep 2012, 19:35
Great article! Thanks for that

1. A male bowerbird uses just about anything ̶ gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps ̶ to decorate his courtyard to attract a female.

A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps - shining is not parallel to discarded. The former is a present participle and the latter, past participle.
B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps - shined/discarded and grayed - all past participles behaving as adjectives
C. graying and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps - discarding distorts meaning
D. gray and white bones, shiny pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps - discarding distorts meaning

Answer: B

2. The researchers from the North Carolina State University notified about the latest dairy contamination to the officials of the FDA earlier than the researchers from the University of California.

A. earlier than the researchers - distorts meaning. Compares notification about.. to researchers.
B. earlier than were the researchers - were doesn't make sense here
C. earlier than did the researchers - The researchers FROM the...... NOTIFIED... earlier than DID the researchers FROM the
D. earlier than the researchers had - doesn't make sense

Answer: C



egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

Solve the following questions on the basis of thiis article:

1. A male bowerbird uses just about anything ̶ gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps ̶ to decorate his courtyard to attract a female.

A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps
B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps
C. graying and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps
D. gray and white bones, shiny pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps

2. The researchers from the North Carolina State University notified about the latest dairy contamination to the officials of the FDA earlier than the researchers from the University of California.

A. earlier than the researchers
B. earlier than were the researchers
C. earlier than did the researchers
D. earlier than the researchers had
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2012, 04:36
My Answers are B and C.

However, I have one doubt. Since the question says that the male bower bird can use anything rather than everything, parallel list should contain OR rather than AND. I know, we don't have that option, but I think OR makes sense.
Whats your take on this.

Thanks

1. A male bowerbird uses just about anything ̶ gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps ̶ to decorate his courtyard to attract a female.
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

Solve the following questions on the basis of thiis article:

1. A male bowerbird uses just about anything ̶ gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps ̶ to decorate his courtyard to attract a female.

A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps
B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps
C. graying and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps
D. gray and white bones, shiny pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps


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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2012, 06:52
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prep wrote:
1. A male bowerbird uses just about anything ̶ gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps ̶ to decorate his courtyard to attract a female.

A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps - shining is not parallel to discarded. The former is a present participle and the latter, past participle.
B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps - shined/discarded and grayed - all past participles behaving as adjectives
C. graying and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps - discarding distorts meaning
D. gray and white bones, shiny pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps - discarding distorts meaning


Hi @prep,

Your analysis for the second question is absolutely perfect. However, you have not selected the correct answer for the first one.

Choice B is not the correct answer of the first question. The correct answer is A.

A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps: Correct. Notice that all the entities are noun phrases. They all start with adjective followed by a noun. Yes, all the adjectives are different in structure – “gray” and “white” are colors, “shining” has “ing” construction, and “discarded” ends with “ed”. But all these three entities are adjectives because all these three expressions modify their following nouns. Hence, despite being different in structure, all these noun entities are parallel to each other because all the starting words act as adjectives, no matter what form they are in.

B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps: Incorrect. “shining” is the correct adjective to precede a noun entity.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2012, 07:18
1. A
2. C

1. B is incorrect as it uses grayed with white; it should be grayed and whitened.
2. Use simple past did with informed.
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2012, 07:31
Another commendable article Rajat.

My answers are
1) A
2) C

1) In first apart from the reasoning that most of the people have written, I would also like to add that "Shinned pebbles" doesn't make sense. It should be shinning pebbles which is reflecting the true characteristic of the pebbles. Shinned Pebbles suggest that the pebbles were shinned intentionally and then the male bowerbird finds them and uses them.

In the reply above me, I do not think that "grayed and whitened bones" would justify the answer.
Please let me know if I am wrong.

2) It was pretty simple. The task done should be compared which is correctly compared in option C
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2012, 10:49
For the first question, I was debating between A and B and had chosen A earlier but later chose B.
Your explanation clarifies my doubt.

Thanks a lot!




egmat wrote:
prep wrote:
1. A male bowerbird uses just about anything ̶ gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps ̶ to decorate his courtyard to attract a female.

A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps - shining is not parallel to discarded. The former is a present participle and the latter, past participle.
B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps - shined/discarded and grayed - all past participles behaving as adjectives
C. graying and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps - discarding distorts meaning
D. gray and white bones, shiny pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps - discarding distorts meaning


Hi @prep,

Your analysis for the second question is absolutely perfect. However, you have not selected the correct answer for the first one.

Choice B is not the correct answer of the first question. The correct answer is A.

A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps: Correct. Notice that all the entities are noun phrases. They all start with adjective followed by a noun. Yes, all the adjectives are different in structure – “gray” and “white” are colors, “shining” has “ing” construction, and “discarded” ends with “ed”. But all these three entities are adjectives because all these three expressions modify their following nouns. Hence, despite being different in structure, all these noun entities are parallel to each other because all the starting words act as adjectives, no matter what form they are in.

B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps: Incorrect. “shining” is the correct adjective to precede a noun entity.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2012, 12:45
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Hi Folks,

This question is fresh from the oven. Try it out.

Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.

A. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding

B. Because the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering of the genes that is responsible for currently known major diseases, and addition of

C. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add

D. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases and add

E. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction and retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2012, 13:59
Scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction by:

a) retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation
b) altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases
c) and adding new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.

All these three must be in parallel.

A. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding - Correct.

B. Because the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering of the genes that is responsible for currently known major diseases, and addition of - Because the - doesn't make sense. Moreover, retaining, altering and addition aren't parallel.

C. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add - Retaining, alter and add - aren't parallel

D. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases and add - The comma before the and isn't present. Moreover, this makes retain, parallel to alter, add and create, which changes the structure/meaning of the sentence.

E. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction and retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add - Distorts the list. Also, altering, add aren't parallel.


Answer: A

egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

This question is fresh from the oven. Try it out.

Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.

A. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding

B. Because the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering of the genes that is responsible for currently known major diseases, and addition of

C. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add

D. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases and add

E. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction and retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 24 Sep 2012, 09:18
The answer: A

Explaination:--

Scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction by:

a) retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation
b) altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases
c) and adding new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.

All these three must be in parallel an they are all forcasting an action.

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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 25 Sep 2012, 06:57
IMO - A
Because the 3 entitities need to be parallel

retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation
altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases
adding new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.



egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

This question is fresh from the oven. Try it out.

Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.

A. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding

B. Because the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering of the genes that is responsible for currently known major diseases, and addition of
- first clause is a fragment

C. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add
- parallelism issue

D. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases and add
- Due to === caused by and the usage is wrong as a modifier of Scientists

E. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction and retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add

- Due to === caused by and the usage is wrong as a modifier of Scientists
- parallelism issue
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http://gmatclub.com/forum/massive-collection-of-verbal-questions-sc-rc-and-cr-106195.html#p832142
http://gmatclub.com/forum/1001-ds-questions-file-106193.html#p832133
http://gmatclub.com/forum/gmat-prep-critical-reasoning-collection-106783.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html?hilit=chineseburned

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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 25 Nov 2012, 05:48
I have a query about first question: choice B.

In the term "greyed and white bones", can't the greyed and white be an adjective?

White bones are greyed due to weathering i.e. getting old.

If I want to use both kind of bones wouldn't I say grayed and white bones?

Let me know if I am going too far with the meaning.:-)

PS: The third image of the parent article is pointing to URL [img]http://gmatclub.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Marker-3-e1347901151280.png{/img] instead of image.Maybe it got messed while editing.
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 26 Nov 2012, 09:33
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Hi Soumens,

From the context of the sentence, we know that the author is talking about two kinds of bones – white and gray. He is only talking about the color of the bones. We retain the identical parallel entities in the list here.

Thanks for letting us know about the image goof up. I have corrected it.

Thanks so much. :)
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 26 Nov 2012, 09:48
Makes sense Shraddha. Thanks for clarifying. :-D

egmat wrote:
Hi Soumens,

From the context of the sentence, we know that the author is talking about two kinds of bones – white and gray. He is only talking about the color of the bones. We retain the identical parallel entities in the list here.

Thanks for letting us know about the image goof up. I have corrected it.

Thanks so much. :)
Shraddha
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 22 Dec 2012, 07:30
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egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

Solve the following questions on the basis of thiis article:

1. A male bowerbird uses just about anything ̶ gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps ̶ to decorate his courtyard to attract a female.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps
B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps
C. graying and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps
D. gray and white bones, shiny pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps

2. The researchers from the North Carolina State University notified about the latest dairy contamination to the officials of the FDA earlier than the researchers from the University of California.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A. earlier than the researchers
B. earlier than were the researchers
C. earlier than did the researchers
D. earlier than the researchers had


Hi Shradhha,
Thanks for this very relevant article and its very critical one also as 'Parallelism' plays a vital role in GMAT SC qs. I think...

OA: 1-A ; 2-C...these were merely easy ones.
Can you please help the community to face challenges with some 700+ difficult qs. on this topic.Eagerly awaiting for your bullets on Parallelism.
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 22 Dec 2012, 07:35
Expert's post
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

This question is fresh from the oven. Try it out.

Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding

B. Because the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering of the genes that is responsible for currently known major diseases, and addition of

C. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add

D. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases and add

E. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction and retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add



Well,it's also an easy one but provided one has gone through your 'Due to vs. Because of' article.. :)

OA : A

It would be really great if you can share with us some tough 700+ qs...
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 29 Jan 2013, 10:46
Shraddha,

Can you direct me to the link of Because of vs Due to article.

Thanks






debayan222 wrote:
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

This question is fresh from the oven. Try it out.

Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding

B. Because the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering of the genes that is responsible for currently known major diseases, and addition of

C. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add

D. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases and add

E. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction and retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add



Well,it's also an easy one but provided one has gone through your 'Due to vs. Because of' article.. :)

OA : A

It would be really great if you can share with us some tough 700+ qs...
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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 29 Jan 2013, 10:51
Expert's post
Scp,
See my signature. You'll get all e-GMAT articles over there.The first link.

Hope this helps.


scp wrote:
Shraddha,

Can you direct me to the link of Because of vs Due to article.

Thanks






debayan222 wrote:
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

This question is fresh from the oven. Try it out.

Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding

B. Because the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering of the genes that is responsible for currently known major diseases, and addition of

C. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add

D. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases and add

E. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction and retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add



Well,it's also an easy one but provided one has gone through your 'Due to vs. Because of' article.. :)

OA : A

It would be really great if you can share with us some tough 700+ qs...

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Re: Markers in Parallelism [#permalink] New post 31 Jan 2013, 09:52
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

This question is fresh from the oven. Try it out.

Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding new genes that will introduce unique characteristics.

A. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and adding

B. Because the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering of the genes that is responsible for currently known major diseases, and addition of

C. Because of the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retaining the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add

D. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction, retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, alter the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases and add

E. Due to the recent developments in genetic replication and cloning, scientists are now able to create super humans through genetic reproduction and retain the most efficient genes of the current generation, altering the genes that are responsible for currently known major diseases, and add


Scientists were able to do four things,
1) Create
2)retain
3)alter
4) add.

And these four must be parallel. Answer to me is D)
Re: Markers in Parallelism   [#permalink] 31 Jan 2013, 09:52
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