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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink]
25 Sep 2012, 09:43

1

This post received KUDOS

conty911 wrote:

Bunuel wrote:

NUMBER THEORY

Trailing zeros: Trailing zeros are a sequence of 0's in the decimal representation (or more generally, in any positional representation) of a number, after which no other digits follow.

125000 has 3 trailing zeros;

The number of trailing zeros in the decimal representation of n!, the factorial of a non-negative integer \(n\), can be determined with this formula:

\(\frac{n}{5}+\frac{n}{5^2}+\frac{n}{5^3}+...+\frac{n}{5^k}\), where k must be chosen such that \(5^k<n\).

It's easier if you look at an example:

How many zeros are in the end (after which no other digits follow) of \(32!\)? \(\frac{32}{5}+\frac{32}{5^2}=6+1=7\) (denominator must be less than 32, \(5^2=25\) is less)

Hence, there are 7 zeros in the end of 32!

The formula actually counts the number of factors 5 in n!, but since there are at least as many factors 2, this is equivalent to the number of factors 10, each of which gives one more trailing zero.

I noticed in case the number (n) is multiple of \(5^k\) and we have to find number of trailing zero zeroes, then it will be \(5^k<=n\) rather \(5^k<n\)

no of trailing zeros in 25! =6

\(\frac{25}{5}+\frac{25}{5^2}= 5+1\); Please correct me, clarify if i'm wrong. Thanks

The highest power of a prime number "k" that divides any number "n!" is given by the formula n/K + n/k^2+n/k^3.. (until numerator becomes lesser than the denominator). Remember to truncate the remainders of each expression

E.g : The highest number of 2's in 10! is 10/2 + 10/4 + 10/8 = 5 + 2 + 1 = 8 (Truncate the reminder of each expression)

As a consequence of this, the number of zeros in n! is controlled by the presence of 5s. Why ? 2 reasons

a) 10 = 5 x 2, b) Also in any n!, the number of 5's are far lesser than the number of 2's.

Think about this example. The number of cars that you make depends on the number of engines. You can have 100 engines and 1000 cars, but you can only make 100 cars (each car needs an engine !)

10 ! = 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 Lets factorize each term ... 10! = (5 x 2) x(3x3)x(2x2x2)x7x(2x3)x(5)X(2x2)x1 the number of 5s = 2 The number of 2s = 7 The number of zeros in 10! = the total number of 5s = 2 (You may use a calc to check this10! = 3628800)

hence in any n! , the number of 5's control the number of zeros.

As a consequence of this, the number of 5's in any n! is n/5 + n/25 + n/125 ..until numerator becomes lesser than denominator.

Again, i want to emphasize that this formuala only works for prime numbers !! So to find the number of 10's in any n!, DO NOT DIVIDE by 10 ! (10 is not prime !) i.e DONT do n/10 + n/100 + n/1000 - THIS IS WRONG !!! _________________

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IT TAKES QUITE A BIT OF TIME AND TO POST DETAILED RESPONSES. YOUR KUDOS IS VERY MUCH APPRECIATED -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink]
27 Oct 2012, 01:34

2

This post received KUDOS

About Exponents and divisibility:

\((a + b)^2 = a^2+ 2ab + b^2\) Square of a Sum \((a - b)^2 = a^2 - 2ab + b^2\) Square of a Difference

\(a^n - b^n\) is always divisble by a-b i.e. irrespective of n being odd or even Proof: \(a^2 - b^2 = (a-b)(a+b)\) \(a^3 - b^3 = (a-b)(a^2+ab+b^2)\)

Thus divisible by a- b in both cases where n = 2 i.e. even and 3 i.e. odd

\(a^n + b^n\) is divisble by a+b i.e. only if n = odd Proof: \(a^3 - b^3 = (a+b)(a^2-ab+b^2)\) Thus divisible by a + b as n = 3 i.e. odd _________________

Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink]
12 Dec 2012, 02:26

Hi,

I'm not sure whether I undertood the below rule correctly:

"Integer ending with 0, 1, 5 or 6, in the integer power k>0, has the same last digit as the base".

55^2 = 3025 - the last digit is same as the base (5) so the above rule works. 55^10 = 253295162119141000 - the last digit is not same as the base (5) so the above rule doesn't work.

Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink]
12 Dec 2012, 02:33

Expert's post

klueless7825 wrote:

Hi,

I'm not sure whether I undertood the below rule correctly:

"Integer ending with 0, 1, 5 or 6, in the integer power k>0, has the same last digit as the base".

55^2 = 3025 - the last digit is same as the base (5) so the above rule works. 55^10 = 25329516211914100[b]0[/b] - the last digit is not same as the base (5) so the above rule doesn't work.

Please help if I have misunderstood the rule.

5 in any positive integer power has 5 as the units digit.

5^1=5; 5^2=25; 5^3=125 ... 5^10=253,295,162,119,140,625 (your result was just rounded).

Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink]
13 Jan 2014, 19:57

Bunuel wrote:

LAST DIGIT OF A POWER

Determining the last digit of \((xyz)^n\):

1. Last digit of \((xyz)^n\) is the same as that of \(z^n\); 2. Determine the cyclicity number \(c\) of \(z\); 3. Find the remainder \(r\) when \(n\) divided by the cyclisity; 4. When \(r>0\), then last digit of \((xyz)^n\) is the same as that of \(z^r\) and when \(r=0\), then last digit of \((xyz)^n\) is the same as that of \(z^c\), where \(c\) is the cyclisity number.

• Integer ending with 0, 1, 5 or 6, in the integer power k>0, has the same last digit as the base. • Integers ending with 2, 3, 7 and 8 have a cyclicity of 4. • Integers ending with 4 (eg. \((xy4)^n\)) have a cyclisity of 2. When n is odd \((xy4)^n\) will end with 4 and when n is even \((xy4)^n\) will end with 6. • Integers ending with 9 (eg. \((xy9)^n\)) have a cyclisity of 2. When n is odd \((xy9)^n\) will end with 9 and when n is even \((xy9)^n\) will end with 1.

Example: What is the last digit of \(127^{39}\)? Solution: Last digit of \(127^{39}\) is the same as that of \(7^{39}\). Now we should determine the cyclisity of \(7\):

1. 7^1=7 (last digit is 7) 2. 7^2=9 (last digit is 9) 3. 7^3=3 (last digit is 3) 4. 7^4=1 (last digit is 1) 5. 7^5=7 (last digit is 7 again!) ...

So, the cyclisity of 7 is 4.

Now divide 39 (power) by 4 (cyclisity), remainder is 3.So, the last digit of \(127^{39}\) is the same as that of the last digit of \(7^{39}\), is the same as that of the last digit of \(7^3\), which is \(3\).

Congratulation and thank you very much for the post, but in the LAST DIGIT OF A POWER i have an issue, when i try to solve the last digit of (456)^35 with the process i just don't get the correct answers, with the process above gives me 6^4 which is 1296=6 and with calculator its 0, can you explain me that case?

Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink]
14 Jan 2014, 00:56

Expert's post

mandrake15 wrote:

Bunuel wrote:

LAST DIGIT OF A POWER

Determining the last digit of \((xyz)^n\):

1. Last digit of \((xyz)^n\) is the same as that of \(z^n\); 2. Determine the cyclicity number \(c\) of \(z\); 3. Find the remainder \(r\) when \(n\) divided by the cyclisity; 4. When \(r>0\), then last digit of \((xyz)^n\) is the same as that of \(z^r\) and when \(r=0\), then last digit of \((xyz)^n\) is the same as that of \(z^c\), where \(c\) is the cyclisity number.

• Integer ending with 0, 1, 5 or 6, in the integer power k>0, has the same last digit as the base. • Integers ending with 2, 3, 7 and 8 have a cyclicity of 4. • Integers ending with 4 (eg. \((xy4)^n\)) have a cyclisity of 2. When n is odd \((xy4)^n\) will end with 4 and when n is even \((xy4)^n\) will end with 6. • Integers ending with 9 (eg. \((xy9)^n\)) have a cyclisity of 2. When n is odd \((xy9)^n\) will end with 9 and when n is even \((xy9)^n\) will end with 1.

Example: What is the last digit of \(127^{39}\)? Solution: Last digit of \(127^{39}\) is the same as that of \(7^{39}\). Now we should determine the cyclisity of \(7\):

1. 7^1=7 (last digit is 7) 2. 7^2=9 (last digit is 9) 3. 7^3=3 (last digit is 3) 4. 7^4=1 (last digit is 1) 5. 7^5=7 (last digit is 7 again!) ...

So, the cyclisity of 7 is 4.

Now divide 39 (power) by 4 (cyclisity), remainder is 3.So, the last digit of \(127^{39}\) is the same as that of the last digit of \(7^{39}\), is the same as that of the last digit of \(7^3\), which is \(3\).

Congratulation and thank you very much for the post, but in the LAST DIGIT OF A POWER i have an issue, when i try to solve the last digit of (456)^35 with the process i just don't get the correct answers, with the process above gives me 6^4 which is 1296=6 and with calculator its 0, can you explain me that case?

Any integer with 6 as its units digit in any positive integer power has the units digit of 6 (integers ending with 0, 1, 5 or 6, in the integer power k>0, has the same last digit as the base.). For example, (xxx6)^(positive integer) has the units digit of 6.

The reason you get 0 as the units digit of (456)^35 is because it's a huge number and simple calculator rounds the result.

Exact result is: 1,158,162,485,059,181,044,784,824,077,056,791,483,879,723,809,565,243,305,114,019,731,744,476,935,058,125,438,332,149,170,176.

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