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Math: Number Theory

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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 30 Apr 2010, 13:30
Expert's post
AloneAndInsufficient wrote:
Bunuel wrote:
NUMBER THEORY
• For GMAT it's good to memorize following values:
\sqrt{2}\approx{1.41}
\sqrt{3}\approx{1.73}
\sqrt{5}\approx{2.24}
\sqrt{7}\approx{2.45}
\sqrt{8}\approx{2.65}
\sqrt{10}\approx{2.83}


Anyone else notice that these are wrong?
They should be:
• For GMAT it's good to memorize following values:
\sqrt{2}\approx{1.41}
\sqrt{3}\approx{1.73}
\sqrt{5}\approx{2.24}
\sqrt{6}\approx{2.45}
\sqrt{7}\approx{2.65}
\sqrt{8}\approx{2.83}
\sqrt{10}\approx{3.16}


Thanks. Edited. +1 for spotting this.
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COLLECTION OF QUESTIONS:
PS: 1. Tough and Tricky questions; 2. Hard questions; 3. Hard questions part 2; 4. Standard deviation; 5. Tough Problem Solving Questions With Solutions; 6. Probability and Combinations Questions With Solutions; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 12 Easy Pieces (or not?); 9 Bakers' Dozen; 10 Algebra set. ,11 Mixed Questions, 12 Fresh Meat

DS: 1. DS tough questions; 2. DS tough questions part 2; 3. DS tough questions part 3; 4. DS Standard deviation; 5. Inequalities; 6. 700+ GMAT Data Sufficiency Questions With Explanations; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 The Discreet Charm of the DS ; 9 Devil's Dozen!!!; 10 Number Properties set., 11 New DS set.


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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 04 May 2010, 04:21
Thank you :)
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 10 May 2010, 01:41
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Example: A company received $2 million in royalties on the first $10 million in sales and then $8 million in royalties on the next $100 million in sales. By what percent did the ratio of royalties to sales decrease from the first $10 million in sales to the next $100 million in sales?

Solution: Percent decrease can be calculated by the formula above: Percent=\frac{Change}{Original}*100=\frac{\frac{2}{10}-\frac{10}{100}}{\frac{2}{10}}*100=50%, so the royalties decreased by 50%.

I could not get this , i think there is some error... Plzz explain..

as the same Q in Percent Part of Math book is giving an answer of 60 %..

Last edited by sag on 10 Jun 2010, 20:15, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 10 May 2010, 15:51
Expert's post
sag wrote:
Example: A company received $2 million in royalties on the first $10 million in sales and then $8 million in royalties on the next $100 million in sales. By what percent did the ratio of royalties to sales decrease from the first $10 million in sales to the next $100 million in sales?

Solution: Percent decrease can be calculated by the formula above: Percent=\frac{Change}{Original}*100=\frac{\frac{2}{10}-\frac{10}{100}}{\frac{2}{10}}*100=50%, so the royalties decreased by 50%.

I could not get this , i think there is some error... Plzz explain..

as the same Q in Percent Part of Math book is giving an answer of 60 %..


There was a typo. I edited it in Percent section and forgot to edit it here. Now it's OK. Thanks. +1 for spotting this.
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COLLECTION OF QUESTIONS:
PS: 1. Tough and Tricky questions; 2. Hard questions; 3. Hard questions part 2; 4. Standard deviation; 5. Tough Problem Solving Questions With Solutions; 6. Probability and Combinations Questions With Solutions; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 12 Easy Pieces (or not?); 9 Bakers' Dozen; 10 Algebra set. ,11 Mixed Questions, 12 Fresh Meat

DS: 1. DS tough questions; 2. DS tough questions part 2; 3. DS tough questions part 3; 4. DS Standard deviation; 5. Inequalities; 6. 700+ GMAT Data Sufficiency Questions With Explanations; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 The Discreet Charm of the DS ; 9 Devil's Dozen!!!; 10 Number Properties set., 11 New DS set.


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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 12 May 2010, 12:53
sag wrote:
Example: A company received $2 million in royalties on the first $10 million in sales and then $8 million in royalties on the next $100 million in sales. By what percent did the ratio of royalties to sales decrease from the first $10 million in sales to the next $100 million in sales?

Solution: Percent decrease can be calculated by the formula above: Percent=\frac{Change}{Original}*100=\frac{\frac{2}{10}-\frac{10}{100}}{\frac{2}{10}}*100=50%, so the royalties decreased by 50%.

I could not get this , i think there is some error... Plzz explain..

as the same Q in Percent Part of Math book is giving an answer of 60 %..


2 million royalties on 10 million in sales is equivalent to 20 million royalties on 100 million sales (multiply both number by 10). Going down from 20 million royalties to 8 million royalties is a decrease of 60%.
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 15 May 2010, 23:24
Thanks Bunuel for all the efforts put in creating this. Really appreciate.
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 10 Jun 2010, 12:14
If a is a factor of bc, and gcd(a,b)=1, then a is a factor of c.

Can anyone please explain this rule??? I'm not sure what it means by gcd(a,b)=1.

Thanks a bunch and great summary !!!!!
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 10 Jun 2010, 14:00
Expert's post
bely202 wrote:
If a is a factor of bc, and gcd(a,b)=1, then a is a factor of c.

Can anyone please explain this rule??? I'm not sure what it means by gcd(a,b)=1.

Thanks a bunch and great summary !!!!!


gcd(a,b)=1 means that greatest common divisor of a and b is 1, or in other words they are co-prime, the don't share any common factor but 1. So if we are told that a is a factor of bc and a and b don't share any common factors, then it must be true that a is a factor of only c.

So if a=3, b=5 (a and b don't share any common factors but 1, gcd(a,b)=1), c=6 bc=30 --> a=3 is a factor of c=6.
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NEW TO MATH FORUM? PLEASE READ THIS: ALL YOU NEED FOR QUANT!!!

PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW: 11 Rules for Posting!!!

RESOURCES: [GMAT MATH BOOK]; 1. Triangles; 2. Polygons; 3. Coordinate Geometry; 4. Factorials; 5. Circles; 6. Number Theory; 7. Remainders; 8. Overlapping Sets; 9. PDF of Math Book; 10. Remainders; 11. GMAT Prep Software Analysis NEW!!!; 12. SEVEN SAMURAI OF 2012 (BEST DISCUSSIONS) NEW!!!; 12. Tricky questions from previous years. NEW!!!;

COLLECTION OF QUESTIONS:
PS: 1. Tough and Tricky questions; 2. Hard questions; 3. Hard questions part 2; 4. Standard deviation; 5. Tough Problem Solving Questions With Solutions; 6. Probability and Combinations Questions With Solutions; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 12 Easy Pieces (or not?); 9 Bakers' Dozen; 10 Algebra set. ,11 Mixed Questions, 12 Fresh Meat

DS: 1. DS tough questions; 2. DS tough questions part 2; 3. DS tough questions part 3; 4. DS Standard deviation; 5. Inequalities; 6. 700+ GMAT Data Sufficiency Questions With Explanations; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 The Discreet Charm of the DS ; 9 Devil's Dozen!!!; 10 Number Properties set., 11 New DS set.


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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 10 Jun 2010, 14:08
Thanks a lot of the detailed explanation !!!! :-D
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 12 Jun 2010, 18:11
thanks for sharing!! :lol:
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 23 Jun 2010, 10:21
My only problem is that I was not able to spot such a good site earlier.
Great effort by Bunuel. Thanks a lot.
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 21 Jul 2010, 17:38
Thank you so much for compiling this! I have a few questions on the reasoning behind the rules... Sorry for the very long post.

Why is:
:?:

Perfect Square
• The sum of distinct factors of a perfect square is ALWAYS ODD.
• A perfect square ALWAYS has an ODD number of Odd-factors, and EVEN number of Even-factors.
• Perfect square always has even number of powers of prime factors.

Consecutive Integers
• The product of n consecutive integers is always divisible by n!.
Given n=4 consecutive integers: \{3,4,5,6\}. The product of 3*4*5*6 is 360, which is divisible by 4!=24.

Evenly Spaced
• If the first term is a_1 and the common difference of successive members is d, then the n_{th} term of the sequence is given by:
a_ n=a_1+d(n-1)

Terminating Decimal
Why must the denominator be 2^n5^m?

Exponents
Why are:
a^n-b^n is ALWAYS divisible by a-b.
a^n + b^n is divisible by a+b if n is odd, and not divisible by a+b if n is even.
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 21 Jul 2010, 19:33
I'm so sorry to make you explain them, but I have a really hard time memorizing rules that I don't understand... thanks again!
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 23 Jul 2010, 05:01
Thanks for this post.
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 25 Jul 2010, 20:43
Hi Bunuel,

Thanks for this wonderful post on number properties.

I was just wondering if we can add topics related question numbers from official book as we have done for Triangles.

Thanks in advance.
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 11 Aug 2010, 16:12
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Bunuel wrote:
fruit wrote:
Thanks! It was very very helpful! Kudos!
But I have a question:

How many powers of 900 are in 50!

Make the prime factorization of the number: 900=2^2*3^2*5^2, then find the powers of these prime numbers in the n!.

Find the power of 2:
\frac{50}{2}+\frac{50}{4}+\frac{50}{8}+\frac{50}{16}+\frac{50}{32}=25+12+6+3+1=47

= 2^{47}

Find the power of 3:
\frac{50}{3}+\frac{50}{9}+\frac{50}{27}=16+5+1=22

=3^{22}

Find the power of 5:
\frac{50}{5}+\frac{50}{25}=10+2=12

=5^{12}

We need all the prime {2,3,5} to be represented twice in 900, 5 can provide us with only 6 pairs, thus there is 900 in the power of 6 in 50!.


Why do we take just 5 from {2,3,5} and why do we need divide 12 by 2 to get the result?


Thanks in advance!


50!=900^xa=(2^2*3^2*5^2)^x*a, where x is the highest possible value of 900 and a is the product of other multiples of 50!.

50!=2^{47}*3^{22}*5^{12}*b=(2^2*3^2*5^2)^6*(2^{35}*3^{10})*b=900^{6}*(2^{35}*3^{10})*b, where b is the product of other multiples of 50!. So x=6.

Below is another example:

Suppose we have the number 18! and we are asked to to determine the power of 12 in this number. Which means to determine the highest value of x in 18!=12^x*a, where a is the product of other multiples of 18!.

12=2^2*3, so we should calculate how many 2-s and 3-s are in 18!.

Calculating 2-s: \frac{18}{2}+\frac{18}{2^2}+\frac{18}{2^3}+\frac{18}{2^4}=9+4+2+1=16. So the power of 2 (the highest power) in prime factorization of 18! is 16.

Calculating 3-s: \frac{18}{3}+\frac{18}{3^2}=6+2=8. So the power of 3 (the highest power) in prime factorization of 18! is 8.

Now as 12=2^2*3 we need twice as many 2-s as 3-s. 18!=2^{16}*3^8*a=(2^2)^8*3^8*a=(2^2*3)^8*a=12^8*a. So 18!=12^8*a --> x=8.



Does this relationship breakdown at some point? I thought this was great and was just experimenting and looked at 21! (calculated in excel) and it ends with 5 zeros. Using the methodology you described above it should have 4 zeros. Am I missing something or did I make a mistake somewhere?
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 11 Aug 2010, 17:07
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utfan2424 wrote:
Does this relationship breakdown at some point? I thought this was great and was just experimenting and looked at 21! (calculated in excel) and it ends with 5 zeros. Using the methodology you described above it should have 4 zeros. Am I missing something or did I make a mistake somewhere?


You made everything right 21! ends with 21/5=4 zeros. It's excel: it makes rounding with such a huge numbers thus giving incorrect result.
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NEW TO MATH FORUM? PLEASE READ THIS: ALL YOU NEED FOR QUANT!!!

PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW: 11 Rules for Posting!!!

RESOURCES: [GMAT MATH BOOK]; 1. Triangles; 2. Polygons; 3. Coordinate Geometry; 4. Factorials; 5. Circles; 6. Number Theory; 7. Remainders; 8. Overlapping Sets; 9. PDF of Math Book; 10. Remainders; 11. GMAT Prep Software Analysis NEW!!!; 12. SEVEN SAMURAI OF 2012 (BEST DISCUSSIONS) NEW!!!; 12. Tricky questions from previous years. NEW!!!;

COLLECTION OF QUESTIONS:
PS: 1. Tough and Tricky questions; 2. Hard questions; 3. Hard questions part 2; 4. Standard deviation; 5. Tough Problem Solving Questions With Solutions; 6. Probability and Combinations Questions With Solutions; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 12 Easy Pieces (or not?); 9 Bakers' Dozen; 10 Algebra set. ,11 Mixed Questions, 12 Fresh Meat

DS: 1. DS tough questions; 2. DS tough questions part 2; 3. DS tough questions part 3; 4. DS Standard deviation; 5. Inequalities; 6. 700+ GMAT Data Sufficiency Questions With Explanations; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 The Discreet Charm of the DS ; 9 Devil's Dozen!!!; 10 Number Properties set., 11 New DS set.


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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 21 Aug 2010, 22:03
Great Collection.. kudos..
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 07 Sep 2010, 20:20
This was immensely helpful, there's stuff in here not found elsewhere.
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Re: Math: Number Theory [#permalink] New post 09 Sep 2010, 11:16
great compilation.......
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Re: Math: Number Theory   [#permalink] 09 Sep 2010, 11:16
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