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Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of

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Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of [#permalink] New post 04 Dec 2007, 11:38
Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of the century, about the same time that fingerprints were first used for identification. Only in the last decade or two, however, have scientists begun to believe that genetic markers in blood and other bodily fluids may someday prove as useful in crime detection as fingerprints.
The standard ABO blood typing has long been used as a form of negative identification. Added sophistication came with the discovery of additional subgroups of genetic markers in blood and with the discovery that genetic markers are present not only in blood but also in other bodily fluids, such as perspiration and saliva.
These discoveries were of little use in crime detection, however, because of the circumstances in which police scientists must work. Rather than a plentiful sample of blood freshly drawn from a patient, the crime laboratory is likely to receive only a tiny fleck of dried blood of unknown age from an unknown “donor” on a shirt or a scrap of rag that has spent hours or days exposed to air, high temperature, and other contaminants.
British scientists found a method for identifying genetic markers more precisely in small samples. In this process, called electrophoresis, a sample is placed on a tray containing a gel through which an electrical current is then passed. A trained analyst reads the resulting patterns in the gel to determine the presence of various chemical markers.
Electrophoresis made it possible to identify several thousand subgroups of blood types rather than the twelve known before. However, the equipment and special training required were expensive. In addition, the process could lead to the destruction of evidence. For example, repeated tests of a blood-flecked shirt—one for each marker—led to increasing deterioration of the evidence and the cost of a week or more of laboratory time.
It remained for another British researcher, Brian Wrexall, to demonstrate that simultaneous analyses, using an inexpensive electrophoresis apparatus, could test for ten different genetic markers within a 24-hour period. This development made the study of blood and other fluid samples an even more valuable tool for crime detection.

1. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with describing
(A) how advances in crime detection methods have led to new discoveries in science
(B) various ways in which crime detection laboratories assist the police
(C) the development of new scientific tools for use in crime detection
(D) areas of current research in the science of crime detection
(E) developments in genetic research and their application to crime detection

2. It can be inferred from the passage that electrophoresis resembles fingerprinting in that both
(A) provide a form of negative identification in crime detection
(B) were first developed by British scientists
(C) may be used to help identify those who were present at the time of a crime
(D) were developed by scientists at around the same time
(E) must be employed almost immediately after a crime to be effective

3. The author sets off the word “‘donor’” (line 18) with quotation marks in order to
(A) emphasize that most of the blood samples received by crime laboratories come from anonymous sources
(B) underscore the contrast between the work done in a crime laboratory and that done in a blood bank
(C) call attention to the fact that, because of underfunding, crime laboratories are forced to rely on charitable contributions
(D) show that the word is being used in a technical, rather than a general, sense
(E) indicate that the blood samples received by crime laboratories are not given freely

4. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions?
(A) Is evidence of genetic markers in bodily fluids admissible in court?
(B) Can electrophoresis be used to identify genetic markers in saliva?
(C) How many subgroups of blood types are currently identifiable?
(D) How accurate is the process of electrophoresis?
(E) How many tests for genetic markers must police scientists run in order to establish the identity of a criminal?

5. According to the passage, all of the following may reduce the usefulness of a fluid sample for crime detection EXCEPT
(A) the passage of time
(B) discoloration or staining
(C) exposure to heat
(D) the small size of the sample
(E) exposure to contaminants

6. The passage implies that electrophoresis may help scientists determine
(A) whether or not a sample of blood could have come from a particular person
(B) the age and condition of a dried specimen of blood or other bodily fluid
(C) when and where a crime was probably committed
(D) the cause of death in homicide cases
(E) the age, gender, and ethnic background of an unknown criminal suspect

7. According to the passage, Brian Wrexall’s refinement of electrophoresis led to
(A) more accurate test results
(B) easier availability of fluid samples
(C) wider applicability of genetic analysis
(D) increased costs of testing
(E) more rapid testing

8. Which of the following statements about genetic markers can be inferred from the passage?
I. They carry an electrical charge.
II. They cannot be identified through standard ABO blood typing.
III. They were of no use in crime detection before the invention of electrophoresis.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
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 [#permalink] New post 04 Dec 2007, 13:52
Here are my answers:

1. C
2. C
3. A
4. C
5. B
6. A
7. E
8. D

RC has always been my weakest area in the verbal part. So, I will be very surprised if I get over half correct answers. But it is a very good practice though.
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 [#permalink] New post 04 Dec 2007, 17:03
1. C
2. D
3. A
4. C
5. D
6. E
7. E
8. A

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 [#permalink] New post 04 Dec 2007, 19:10
OAs:
C
C
E
B
B
A
E
A

Can someone comment on question (3) and (8)? We need some discussion more than just the answers.
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Re: RC: Electrophoresis [#permalink] New post 04 Dec 2007, 23:26
eyunni wrote:
Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of the century, about the same time that fingerprints were first used for identification. Only in the last decade or two, however, have scientists begun to believe that genetic markers in blood and other bodily fluids may someday prove as useful in crime detection as fingerprints.
The standard ABO blood typing has long been used as a form of negative identification. Added sophistication came with the discovery of additional subgroups of genetic markers in blood and with the discovery that genetic markers are present not only in blood but also in other bodily fluids, such as perspiration and saliva.
These discoveries were of little use in crime detection, however, because of the circumstances in which police scientists must work. Rather than a plentiful sample of blood freshly drawn from a patient, the crime laboratory is likely to receive only a tiny fleck of dried blood of unknown age from an unknown “donor” on a shirt or a scrap of rag that has spent hours or days exposed to air, high temperature, and other contaminants.
British scientists found a method for identifying genetic markers more precisely in small samples. In this process, called electrophoresis, a sample is placed on a tray containing a gel through which an electrical current is then passed. A trained analyst reads the resulting patterns in the gel to determine the presence of various chemical markers.
Electrophoresis made it possible to identify several thousand subgroups of blood types rather than the twelve known before. However, the equipment and special training required were expensive. In addition, the process could lead to the destruction of evidence. For example, repeated tests of a blood-flecked shirt—one for each marker—led to increasing deterioration of the evidence and the cost of a week or more of laboratory time.
It remained for another British researcher, Brian Wrexall, to demonstrate that simultaneous analyses, using an inexpensive electrophoresis apparatus, could test for ten different genetic markers within a 24-hour period. This development made the study of blood and other fluid samples an even more valuable tool for crime detection.

1. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with describing
(A) how advances in crime detection methods have led to new discoveries in science
(B) various ways in which crime detection laboratories assist the police
(C) the development of new scientific tools for use in crime detection
(D) areas of current research in the science of crime detection
(E) developments in genetic research and their application to crime detection

2. It can be inferred from the passage that electrophoresis resembles fingerprinting in that both
(A) provide a form of negative identification in crime detection
(B) were first developed by British scientists
(C) may be used to help identify those who were present at the time of a crime
(D) were developed by scientists at around the same time
(E) must be employed almost immediately after a crime to be effective

3. The author sets off the word “‘donor’” (line 18) with quotation marks in order to
(A) emphasize that most of the blood samples received by crime laboratories come from anonymous sources
(B) underscore the contrast between the work done in a crime laboratory and that done in a blood bank
(C) call attention to the fact that, because of underfunding, crime laboratories are forced to rely on charitable contributions
(D) show that the word is being used in a technical, rather than a general, sense
(E) indicate that the blood samples received by crime laboratories are not given freely

4. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions?
(A) Is evidence of genetic markers in bodily fluids admissible in court?
(B) Can electrophoresis be used to identify genetic markers in saliva?
(C) How many subgroups of blood types are currently identifiable?
(D) How accurate is the process of electrophoresis?
(E) How many tests for genetic markers must police scientists run in order to establish the identity of a criminal?

5. According to the passage, all of the following may reduce the usefulness of a fluid sample for crime detection EXCEPT
(A) the passage of time
(B) discoloration or staining
(C) exposure to heat
(D) the small size of the sample
(E) exposure to contaminants

6. The passage implies that electrophoresis may help scientists determine
(A) whether or not a sample of blood could have come from a particular person
(B) the age and condition of a dried specimen of blood or other bodily fluid
(C) when and where a crime was probably committed
(D) the cause of death in homicide cases
(E) the age, gender, and ethnic background of an unknown criminal suspect

7. According to the passage, Brian Wrexall’s refinement of electrophoresis led to
(A) more accurate test results
(B) easier availability of fluid samples
(C) wider applicability of genetic analysis
(D) increased costs of testing
(E) more rapid testing

8. Which of the following statements about genetic markers can be inferred from the passage?
I. They carry an electrical charge.
II. They cannot be identified through standard ABO blood typing.
III. They were of no use in crime detection before the invention of electrophoresis.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III



1C
2C
3A
4B
5B
6A
7E
8B

OA for 3 is E? There is no way E is correct. thats def a glitch. E doesnt even make any sense. Its almost as ridiculous (although not as amusing) as C. I know that usually I am wrong even when I dispute the OA just b/c I wanna be right. But in this case I am 110% confident that E is not correct.


Now for 8. I would like to know where the passage says there is an electrical charge in blood and bodily fluids.

The only part I can find is this "In this process, called electrophoresis, a sample is placed on a tray containing a gel through which an electrical current is then passed."

I dont see how this suggests that genetic markers themselves contain an electric current.


For 8. I didnt wanna answer B b/c I knew it wasnt right, but to tell you the truth I couldnt find any answer choice that was correct.

III is obviously incorrect as is contrasted in the passage.
II states that they can but its not very helpful in for crime scenes.
I Again someone got it on here.

Please explain why I is valid.

Ok nough of that.
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Re: RC: Electrophoresis [#permalink] New post 05 Dec 2007, 22:27
3. The author sets off the word “‘donor’” (line 18) with quotation marks in order to
(A) emphasize that most of the blood samples received by crime laboratories come from anonymous sources
(B) underscore the contrast between the work done in a crime laboratory and that done in a blood bank
(C) call attention to the fact that, because of underfunding, crime laboratories are forced to rely on charitable contributions
(D) show that the word is being used in a technical, rather than a general, sense
(E) indicate that the blood samples received by crime laboratories are not given freely

The OA is E because blood samples are taken from cadavers, so these cadavers are "donors", and their blood is not given "freely"


8. Which of the following statements about genetic markers can be inferred from the passage?
I. They carry an electrical charge.
II. They cannot be identified through standard ABO blood typing.
III. They were of no use in crime detection before the invention of electrophoresis.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III[/quote]

I thought the OA was E. Could anyone explain me why it is not?

Moreover, can someone explain me the answers 1-2-4-6?
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Re: RC: Electrophoresis [#permalink] New post 07 Dec 2007, 14:10
marcodonzelli wrote:
3. The author sets off the word “‘donor’” (line 18) with quotation marks in order to
(A) emphasize that most of the blood samples received by crime laboratories come from anonymous sources
(B) underscore the contrast between the work done in a crime laboratory and that done in a blood bank
(C) call attention to the fact that, because of underfunding, crime laboratories are forced to rely on charitable contributions
(D) show that the word is being used in a technical, rather than a general, sense
(E) indicate that the blood samples received by crime laboratories are not given freely

The OA is E because blood samples are taken from cadavers, so these cadavers are "donors", and their blood is not given "freely"


8. Which of the following statements about genetic markers can be inferred from the passage?
I. They carry an electrical charge.
II. They cannot be identified through standard ABO blood typing.
III. They were of no use in crime detection before the invention of electrophoresis.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III


I thought the OA was E. Could anyone explain me why it is not?

Moreover, can someone explain me the answers 1-2-4-6?[/quote]


Thanks. That a very good explanation of question 3 use have.

Now, I can try to explain question 1, 2, and 6 to you since I got those right.

1. paragraph one says scientist believe that genetic marker in blood will one day prove useful in crime detection; paragraph two says the standard blood type method is limited and of little use to crime detection; paragraph three says the guy in British developed electrophoresis; and the last paragraph and the key sentence :"This development made the study of blood and other fluid samples an even more valuable tool for crime detection. "
Choice A is wrong. The passage never mentions how advance the method is.
Choice B is wrong. Though assist police is briefly mentioned in the second paragraph. It is not the focus of the passage.
Choice D is wrong. The passage does not focus on science of crime detection
Choice E is wrong. The passage talked about the development of electrophroesis as a valued tool not the development of genetic research.

2. This is inference question. Therefore the answer must be true and no new info can be added. This can be inferred from the first paragraph.
Choice A is wrong because negative identification in crime detection is talked about in the second paragraph not the first and the negative identification is for standard blood typing.
Choice B is wrong because British scientists is talked about in the third paragraph not the first and even though the passage mentioned the British scientist found the method without relevant evidence you can not assume that he first develop the method.
Choice D is wrong because the passage says standard blood typing method were developed about the same time as fingerprints. But only in the last decade or two scientists have begun to look into electrophroesis.
Choice E is a typical GMAT inference wrong answer and this applies to Critical Reasoning as well. Asides from it uses the extreme language, it is never mentioned in the passage

6. This is an inference question as well. It can be referenced to "Electrophoresis made it possible to identify several thousand subgroups of blood types rather than the twelve known before."
(B) the age and condition of a dried specimen of blood or other bodily fluid This is wrong because the passage never mentions it.
(C) when and where a crime was probably committed
This is wrong because the passage never mentions it.
(D) the cause of death in homicide cases
This is wrong because the passage never mentions it.
(E) the age, gender, and ethnic background of an unknown criminal suspect
Again, this is wrong because the passage never mentions it.

Hope it helps. Now could someone explain question 4 please?
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Re: RC: Electrophoresis [#permalink] New post 26 Aug 2010, 07:15
Can someone clarify number 8 again please.
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Re: RC: Electrophoresis [#permalink] New post 27 Aug 2010, 01:32
gautrang wrote:
Can someone clarify number 8 again please.


I disagree with 8.
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Re: RC: Electrophoresis [#permalink] New post 13 Sep 2010, 19:38
OA are so confusing you wonder if they are real.

In Q 8, How can it be A, when the passage states explicitly that the electrical current is passed through the gel, not the blood sample.


In 4, how can it be B if all it talks about is the use of Electrophoresis with bloood samples and mentions nothing about saliva.
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Re: RC: Electrophoresis [#permalink] New post 15 Sep 2010, 19:48
For 3rd i think D is correct. E seems wrong please explain how E is correct
Re: RC: Electrophoresis   [#permalink] 15 Sep 2010, 19:48
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