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MNCs In China - Try this fresh 700+ level question

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MNCs In China - Try this fresh 700+ level question [#permalink] New post 22 Feb 2013, 20:27
Expert's post
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  5% (low)

Question Stats:

96% (02:01) correct 4% (01:41) wrong based on 25 sessions
Hi Folks,

As expected, here we are ready with our fresh question for the ensuing week. Try to solve this one, post your detailed analysis, and get Kudos from us. :)

Multi-national corporations that have tried to compete in China have faced intense competition from local firms that have been able to infringe on their designs because of the limited patent laws.

A. that have been able to infringe on their designs
B. because the infringement of multi-national corporations’ designs was enabled
C. in that their designs were enabled to be infringed
D. because the designs were enabled and infringed
E. that have been able to infringe on the designs of these multi-national corporations

As always, the OA and the detailed OE will be posted after some discussion. Happy Solving. :)
Thanks.
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Last edited by egmat on 25 Feb 2013, 12:36, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: MNCs In China - Try this fresh 700+ level question [#permalink] New post 22 Feb 2013, 20:28
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Hi Folks,

Here comes the official explanation for this question:

Multi-national corporations that have tried to compete in China have faced intense competition from local firms that have been able to infringe their designs because of the limited patent laws.

Meaning Analysis
• Those MNCs that have tried to compete in China, have faced immense competition from local companies.
• These local companies have been able to steal the design of these MNCs.
• The reason for this stealing is that the patent laws in the country are very limited.

Errors in Original Sentence
• Clause 1: Multi-national corporations
• Clause 2: that have tried to compete in China
• Cont. of Cl 1: have faced intense competition from local firms
• Clause 3: that have been able to infringe their designs
• Cont. of Cl 2: because of the limited patent laws.

1. All the subject-verb pairs are accounted for.
2. All the verbs are correctly written in present perfect tense, indicating an action that took place in the past but whose effect is still continuing into the present.
3. All the modifiers are correctly placed.
4. Grammatically, there is no error in the sentence. However, the reference of pronoun “their” is a little concern here. Logically it should refer to “MNCs”. And it would actually not make sense to say that local firms have been able to infringe their own designs (i.e. if “their” referred to “local firms”). Even though logically “their” should refer to “MNCs” only, we will not directly mark choice A as the correct answer. We will put it on hold and do the PoE to see if we have any better answer choice than A that further clarifies this possible pronoun ambiguity.

PoE:

A. that have been able to infringe their designs: On hold for the reason stated above.

B. because the infringement of multi-national corporations’ designs was enabled: Incorrect.
Error – In this choice, the active voice of clause 3 verb has been turned to passive voice. Now this choice does not say that the local firms in China have been able to infringe the designs, a vital information missing from this choice.

C. in that their designs were enabled to be infringed: Incorrect.
Error 1 – This choice repeats the same error of missing information because of passive construction.
Error 2 – Past tense verb “were enabled” is not consistent with present perfect tense verbs in the sentence.

D. because the designs were enabled and infringed: Incorrect.
Error – This choice repeats both the errors of Choice C.

E. that have been able to infringe the designs of these multi-national corporations: Correct.
In this choice “their” has been replaced by “of these multi-national corporations”. This clears the reference of “their” in choice A. So we choose E over A.

Takeaways
1. The correct answer choice must contain all the information presented in the original sentence.
2. All the verbs in the sentence must be consistent.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Last edited by egmat on 04 Mar 2013, 09:32, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: MNCs In China - Try this fresh 700+ level question [#permalink] New post 22 Feb 2013, 21:33
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Multi-national corporations that have tried to compete in China have faced intense competition from local firms that have been able to infringe their designs because of the limited patent laws.
A. that have been able to infringe their designs - This sentence is Incorrect not because of Ambiguity of THEIR (Their refers to MNC's) but because of Possessive nouns as it would mean MNC's designs i.e. a certain type of designs & not designs of MNC's
B. because the infringement of multi-national corporations’ designs was enabled- Passive voice is incorrect.
C. in that their designs were enabled to be infringed-Passive voice is incorrect. IN THAT is not preferred to give reasons
D. because the designs were enabled and infringed- Passive voice is incorrect. Moreover ENABLED is redundant
E. that have been able to infringe the designs of these multi-national corporations - The use of THESE is redundant in this option but this option is best among the rest. CORRECT


Thus the answer has to be E.

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Last edited by fameatop on 22 Feb 2013, 23:31, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: MNCs In China - Try this fresh 700+ level question [#permalink] New post 22 Feb 2013, 21:40
Multi-national corporations that have tried to compete in China have faced intense competition from local firms that have been able to infringe their designs because of the limited patent laws.

A. that have been able to infringe their designs
B. because the infringement of multi-national corporations’ designs was enabled
C. in that their designs were enabled to be infringed
D. because the designs were enabled and infringed
E. that have been able to infringe the designs of these multi-national corporations

Meaning:
There multi-national corporations that have tried to compete in China. These corps. have faced intense competition from local firms. This is so, because these local firms have been able to infringe these multi-corps' designs because of the limited patent laws.

Analysis: 3 clauses
1. Multi-national corporations
2. that have tried to compete {in China} - Dependent Clause
1 (cont) have faced intense competition {from local firms} - IC
3. that have been able to infringe their designs {because of the limited patent laws}. - Dependent Clause

A. Incorrect - because of a pronoun error. "their" in clause #3 is ambiguous. Logically, it can refer either to "multi-national corporations" and to "local firms".
B. Incorrect - 1) it is wordy - using noun 'enhancements" + unnecessary "was enabled"; 2) meaning change - infringement was enabled implies as if it a setting that can be turned on and off, which is not the case
C. Incorrect - 1) pronoun ambiguity - "their" (is it local firms' or multi-corps'?); 2) wordy - "enabled to be infringed" + 3) unnecessary change from active to passive voice construction
D. Incorrect - 1) meaning change from "multi-national corporations' designs" to "the designs" - what designs? it is not clear; 2) unnecessary passive voice "were enabled"; 3) unnecessary list introduced: "enabled" and "infringed" - meaning change and illogical meaning.
E. I'll put my "kudos" on this answer choice :)
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Re: MNCs In China - Try this fresh 700+ level question [#permalink] New post 23 Feb 2013, 07:14
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

As expected, here we are ready with our fresh question for the ensuing week. Try to solve this one, post your detailed analysis, and get Kudos from us. :)

Multi-national corporations that have tried to compete in China have faced intense competition from local firms that have been able to infringe their designs because of the limited patent laws.

A. that have been able to infringe their designs
B. because the infringement of multi-national corporations’ designs was enabled
C. in that their designs were enabled to be infringed
D. because the designs were enabled and infringed
E. that have been able to infringe the designs of these multi-national corporations

As always, the OA and the detailed OE will be posted after some discussion. Happy Solving. :)
Thanks.


Meaning :- MNCs in china are facing competition from Local Firms because of an effect of limited patent laws.

Error analysis :- the pronoun 'their' is ambiguous, it can refer to both MNC`s or Local Firm`s. Pronoun-Antecedent error

POE :-
Option A :- explained
Option B :- This option states that the limited patent laws have enabled the infringement of MNC`s designs. which is not correct
Option C :- same pronoun-antecedent error as in A and also this option states that the limited patent laws have enabled the designs to be infringed, which is not correct.
Option D :- change of meaning by referring to generic designs rather than specific designs. Also this option states that the limited patent laws have enabled and infringed the designs, which is not correct.
Option E :- Correct

IMO :- E
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Re: MNCs In China - Try this fresh 700+ level question [#permalink] New post 23 Feb 2013, 07:51
I also vote for E....
Meaning: MNC's face stiff competition from the local companies as theses local companies copy the products of MNC's

C In that : is considered silted and is wrong on gmat.
B, D : awkward construction...the intended meaning cannot be inferred
A: changes the meaning

Hence the answer is E

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Re: MNCs In China - Try this fresh 700+ level question [#permalink] New post 23 Feb 2013, 08:59
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

As expected, here we are ready with our fresh question for the ensuing week. Try to solve this one, post your detailed analysis, and get Kudos from us. :)

Multi-national corporations that have tried to compete in China have faced intense competition from local firms that have been able to infringe their designs because of the limited patent laws.

A. that have been able to infringe their designs
B. because the infringement of multi-national corporations’ designs was enabled
C. in that their designs were enabled to be infringed
D. because the designs were enabled and infringed
E. that have been able to infringe the designs of these multi-national corporations

As always, the OA and the detailed OE will be posted after some discussion. Happy Solving. :)
Thanks.


Responding to a pm:-
A says that local firms have been able to infringe theirdesigns...
Meaning : local firm infringes the design produced by them or local firm infringes the design of the local firm itself not the product but the company...
In a nutshell their is ambiguous
The error can be said to be as pronoun ambiguity or the meaning not conveyed.


Hope that helps!!

Consider kudos If my post helps!!!

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Re: MNCs In China - Try this fresh 700+ level question [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2013, 00:41
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Re: MNCs In China - Try this fresh 700+ level question [#permalink] New post 04 Mar 2013, 09:56
Expert's post
Thanks every one for participating in this question/poll.

Here are the statistics for this question:



Image

Number of responses - 40
64% people answered this question correctly.
Choice A was the next popular choice with 83% votes. This indeed is a very close answer choice with no grammatical error. However, choice E wins over the preoces of the pronoun "their".

Also, for those of you who selected the correct answer, I suggest that you go through the official explanation to confirm that your rationale for rejecting the incorrect choices was sound. Remember its important to select the correct answer, but equally important is that you should reject the incorrect choices for the right reasons. :)

Thanks.
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Re: MNCs In China - Try this fresh 700+ level question   [#permalink] 04 Mar 2013, 09:56
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