More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts

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More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2009, 01:41
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More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.

(A) to greater economic development and investing
(B) to greater development economically and investing
(C) of greater economic development and invest
(D) of greater development economically and invest
(E) for greater economic development and the investment of

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

Could someone explain me the OA ?
Is greater a verb? I'm quite surprise by the structure of this sentence...
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by fameatop on 07 Sep 2013, 21:26, edited 1 time in total.
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More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2013, 05:42
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Hi,

I received a PM to clarify if we can solve this problem without the knowledge of correct idiom.

The answer to that question is, Yes. We can arrive at the correct answer choice purely on the basis of parallelism.
Let’s bring the problem and the answer choices here:

More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.

Let’s analyze each choice on the basis of parallelism.
(A) to greater economic development and investing: Correct. The two entities in the list are “are stressing” and “(are) investing millions of dollars in cultural activities”.

(B) to greater development economically and investing: Incorrect. “economically” is not the same as “economic”. “economically” means “inexpensively” whereas “economic” means pertaining to the finance.

(C) of greater economic development and invest: Incorrect. “invest” is not parallel to “are stressing”.

(D) of greater development economically and invest: Incorrect. Same errors as in choice C.

(E) for greater economic development and the investment of: Incorrect. This choice distorts the intended meaning as "are stressing" is not parallel to "the investment...".

The confusion between A and E can be further resolved much easily if we know the correct idiom pertaining to the use “means”.

The two correct idioms related to “means of” and “means to”.
“means of” = kind of
“means to” = method to achieve

Per the official sentence, the intended meaning is that “arts” is a method to greater economic development and investing lots of money in cultural activities. On this basis, choice A can be selected easily.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Last edited by egmat on 25 Jul 2014, 07:40, edited 3 times in total.
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09 Nov 2009, 02:35
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I think "a means to" in this case is similar to "a way to", so the correct answer is saying that cities are stressing the arts as a way to achieve greater economic development.

I believe that saying "a means of" is like saying "a way of". For example, while you wouldn't write "cars are a way of transport" you can say "cars are a means of transport".

I am sure there is a better explanation for this, I quickly googled it and couldn't find one, can anyone else offer a better explanation?
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Re: SC 510 / 1000 [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2009, 01:51
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pierrealexandre77 wrote:
More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.

The key here is parallelism. Cities are "stressing" and "investing". So eliminate C, D and E.
"Greater economic development" is better than "greater development economically". Greater is an adjective here. Eliminate B.

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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2015, 10:10
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Ergenekon wrote:
Chose A. Parallelism is between stressing and investing. I don't agree with e-gmat's answer that economically does not mean financially. I think economically can be used for both finance and not wasteful.

Chose A. Parallelism is between stressing and investing. I don't agree with e-gmat's answer that economically does not mean financially. I think economically can be used for both finance and not wasteful.

Dear Ergenekon,
I got your p.m. and I am happy to respond.

First of all, you may find this blog helpful:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-sente ... al-ending/
The GMAT loves the "economic" vs. "economical" split.

As I think you already appreciate, these two words have very different meanings.
economic = related to the economy, to macro- or microeconomics;
an economic summit
the President's economic policy
the city's economic decisions
(i.e., decisions about money policies, spending, investing, etc.)
economical = thrifty; cost-cutting; designed to save money
an economical restaurant (i.e. one where we can get inexpensive meals)
an economical car (i.e. that doesn't strain the budget of the person who bought it)
the city's economical decisions (i.e. city-wide cost-cutting measures)

Now, I believe your question concerns the adverb, "economically." This adverb corresponds to which adjective? Well, if we think more in terms of the pure mathematical grammatical patterns, then we could start with either adjective and turn it into this adverb. BUT, think about the logic of the word. The word "economic" most often denotes a large-scale process, not necessarily something that is the consequence of the decision of one person or a few people; after all, the economy involves the action of what Adam Smith called the "invisible hand," the emergent properties of the system which arise without anyone having intended them. By contrast, the word "economical" always implies a very specific decision of one person or a group of people.

By far, the most common use of the adverb "economically" would be in the latter context, describing the intentions and goals of the individuals who are in the process of enacting cost-cutting measures. It is conceivable to use the adverb in the former sense, but typically, the actor would a nation or other large group. For example,
In that sense, clearly we discussing the national economy of India, so we are using the adverb in the "economic" sense, not in the "economical" sense.

Now, let's consider this SC question, and choices (A) & (B), which get the parallelism correct:
More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.
(A) to greater economic development and investing
(B) to greater development economically and investing

Incidentally, this question also test the very subtle idiom difference of "means of" vs. "means to." See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-sente ... -means-to/
Obviously, (A) is flawless, but let's ignore that for the moment. What is going on with (B)? Suppose (B) were correct: what would it mean?
.... cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater development economically ....
Notice that, in this (B) version, we have absolutely no idea what kind of development the author has in mind----artistic development? personal development? moral development? spiritual development? The arts are going to support this kind of development, whatever it is, and somehow this connection between the arts and this unspecified development is related to the economic situation of the city. You see, if the development we have in mind is very specifically the development of the city's economy, then we need to use the adjective "economic" to modify development, not the adverb "economically" to modify the verb "are stressing." We are not talking about a variety of "stressing" that is related to the economy; we are trying to talk about a kind of "development" that is related to the economy. When what we want to modify is a noun, not a verb, we need an adjective, not an adverb.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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09 Nov 2009, 02:07
Hi yangsta8,

I noticed the parallelism but I think I don't know the idiom "as a means..."

When should I use "as a means to" and when should I use "as a means of" ?
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Re: SC 510 / 1000 [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2010, 06:20
More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.

(A) to greater economic development and investing - stressing and investing are parallel, also means to greater economic development is correct
(B) to greater development economically and investing
(C) of greater economic development and invest - stressing and invest is not parallel
(D) of greater development economically and invest - stressing and invest is not parallel
(E) for greater economic development and the investment of - stressing and invest is not parallel
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Re: SC 510 / 1000 [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2011, 01:48
(A)

(A) to greater economic development and investing
(B) to greater development economically and investing
(C) of greater economic development and invest
(D) of greater development economically and invest
(E) for greater economic development and the investment of
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Re: SC 510 / 1000 [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2011, 17:24
A parallelism.
tense present to present continuous
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12 Jul 2011, 14:55
Chose C but A makes sense for parallelism.
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Re: SC 510 / 1000 [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2011, 03:42
I will go with A, can anyone please enlighten me on the use of "means of " and "means to"?
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Re: SC 510 / 1000 [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2011, 04:03
A.
More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.To greater development economically in B is awkward.
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Re: SC 510 / 1000 [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2011, 05:12
i th
ought means of is an idiom not means to
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Re: SC 510 / 1000 [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2011, 12:37
zuberahmed wrote:
I will go with A, can anyone please enlighten me on the use of "means of " and "means to"?

I am not an expert, but "means of" is hardly used.
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Re: SC 510 / 1000 [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2011, 08:01
+1 A

"a means to" is the idiom.
"economically" changes the meaning.
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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2013, 15:50
I picked E. When I read first , I felt as a means for sounds better . I was not aware that as a means to is an idiom.

I decomposed the statement as -

More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means for

greater economic development
and
the investment of millions of dollars in cultural activities

,despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.

Assuming we do not know the correct idiom,can we solve this just on the basis of parallelism ? Is the parallel structure I have depicted above correct ?

I believe both of them are noun phrases 'greater economic development' and 'the investment of...' or is it that one of them is complex noun and the other simple ?
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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2013, 20:56
a means of

means " a type"

a means to

means " a method"

if I do not remember wrong
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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2013, 22:32
I think there is more to it than what has been explained so far -

This sentence states that "More and more in recent years, cities are stressing .......... and investing ............,despite ....."

Clearly stressing and investing, the 2 gerunds are parallel in the OA. The phrase to greater economic development is a prepositional phrase. I don't think that we should look for parallelism between investing and "greater economic development".

More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.

(A) to greater economic development and investing - Correct

(B) to greater development economically and investing - "economically" is not the same as "economical" The former is an adverb, the latter is an adjective.
(C) of greater economic development and invest - Parallelism breaks with the use of "invest"
(D) of greater development economically and invest - same as C - No parallelism
(E) for greater economic development and the investment of - same as C - No parallelism
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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2013, 09:46
as per my knowledge.. it shld be as a means of....but the verbs to be parallel..so we have opted for A ..plz let me knw if m wrong
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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2014, 02:25
pierrealexandre77 wrote:
More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.

(A) to greater economic development and investing
(B) to greater development economically and investing
(C) of greater economic development and invest
(D) of greater development economically and invest
(E) for greater economic development and the investment of

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

Could someone explain me the OA ?
Is greater a verb? I'm quite surprise by the structure of this sentence...

Understanding of words + parallelism, here:

Understanding of words:
economic, not economical. To develop economically means it's developing without wasting resources. This is not the intended meaning of the author. So, B/D gone.

Parallelism:

we need to parallel "cities are stressing", so we have a present participle that we need to add another present participle to. Only A - of the viable options - has a present participle. So A is correct.
Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts   [#permalink] 06 Jan 2014, 02:25

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