Most Brazilian citizens are fluent speakers of Portuguese. Some Brazilian citizens speak Japanese. Therefore, some Brazilian citizens are bilingual (i.e., can speak two languages).
Which of the following describes the conclusion above?
A) The conclusion given above follows conclusively from the stated premises.
B) The conclusion follows from the premises, but it cannot represent the actual situation in Brazil, since the premises cannot both be true.
C) Since the premises of this argument are true, and the conclusion does not follow from them, we can infer that all Brazilian citizens are monolingual (i.e., speak only one language).
D) Since the conclusion of this argument is true, and it follows from the premises, we can infer that the premises are also true.
E) The conclusion of this argument does not follow from the premises, but we cannot thereby infer anything about the truth of either the premises or the conclusion.
Here's an extreme example. Let's say there are 100 citizens of Brazil. 80 are fluent in Portugese. 5 can speak Japanese. It is possible that those 5 that speak Japanese do not speak any other languages. It is possible that the 80 that are fluent in Portugese do not speak any other language. Therefore you gotta roll with choice E. You can't conclude with 100% certainty that there are any multilingual Brazillian citizens.