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Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like

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Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like [#permalink] New post 12 May 2012, 21:39
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Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and dengue have focused either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating mosquitoes with pesticides.

A and dengue have focused either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating
B like malaria and dengue have focused either on vaccinating of humans or on the extermination of
C as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or on exterminating
D as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating of humans or on extermination of
E as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or exterminating
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases [u]like [#permalink] New post 12 May 2012, 22:28
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macjas wrote:
Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and dengue have focused either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating mosquitoes with pesticides.

A and dengue have focused either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating
Incorrect: "vaccination" and "exterminating" are not parallel

B like malaria and dengue have focused either on vaccinating of humans or on the extermination of
Incorrect: "vaccinating" and "extermination" are not parallel. Also, I think the proper idiomatic phrase is "such . . . as" as opposed to "such . . . like"

C as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or on exterminating
Incorrect: the "on" before exterminating is kind of wordy because "on either" implies that the "on" carries over to both "vaccinating" and "exterminating"

D as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating of humans or on extermination of
Incorrect: "vaccinating" and "extermination" are not parallel

E as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or exterminating

Correct: Proper idiomatic phrase is used "such . . .as", and "vaccinating" and "exterminating" are parallel
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases [u]like [#permalink] New post 13 May 2012, 02:27
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This is essentially a test of 1. the use of such as versus like 2. the parallelism of the coordinate conjunction either--- or and 3 the parallelism of a participle or gerund and noun

A like malaria and dengue have focused either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating--- like can not be used to mark examples

B like malaria and dengue have focused either on vaccinating of humans or on the extermination of----use of like is wrong

C. as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or on exterminating--- either vaccinating humans or on exterminating---wrong parallelism of either ---or coordinate conjunction; on the right hand side of both either and or, similar structure should be used

D as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating of humans or on extermination of----- either vaccinating of humans or on extermination of --- bad co-ordinate conjunction parallelism.

E as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or exterminating --- proper uaw of either or parallelism. Correct choice.

Now let us take choice B. We rejected it primarily because of the uses of like. However, how about either or parallelism? It is perfectly parallel because of the use of the pronoun on the right hand side of both either and or.

What about vaccinating of and extermination of—this is also perfectly parallel because vaccinating of is a gerund and is as good as extermination of in structure.
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases [u]like [#permalink] New post 13 May 2012, 02:36
I narrowed it down between D and E due to the idiomatic use of such x as Y and proper parallel structures

then I chose E because I know the GMAT prefers active over passive voice.
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases [u]like [#permalink] New post 13 May 2012, 03:36
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As an addendum to my earlier posting, let may say that all the five choices in the context are active voice sentences; so the use of active versus passive voice is not tested here. In addition, Choice C, D and E use the template: such as x and y and not such x as y
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases [u]like [#permalink] New post 13 May 2012, 04:14
so then what is the grammatical distinction, if any, between the structures:

vaccinating of humans
vaccinating humans?

I'm guessing vaccinating humans would be preferred if all else equal?
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases [u]like [#permalink] New post 13 May 2012, 04:17
also is it just me, or does the SC section seem to have a LOT of parallel error type questions?? Even questions with other errors seem to contain parallel errors along with some other error eg. parallel errors + verb tense
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases [u]like [#permalink] New post 13 May 2012, 04:53
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Merely saying vaccinating may mislead. Used as an adjectival phrase, vaccinating humans may refer to those humans who do the job of vaccination. Vaccinating is a present participle and not a gerund in that instance. However, vaccinating of humans is out and out a gerund. That is why for use as a gerund, we may add the preposition of to be sure

Parallelism error is one of the most used aspects of sentence structure at least in GMAT. Although purely singular errors such as lack of parallelism alone may appear rarely in GMAT, the normal practice often is to cobble two or three errors together, of which parallelism will be one either as the primary error or as a secondary error.
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases [u]like [#permalink] New post 13 May 2012, 05:06
So to take this further, simple and complex gerunds cannot be parallel and if we change vaccinating humans to:
I am vaccinating humans now then it turns into a simple gerund if vaccinating humans modifies a noun. Gotchya.
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases [u]like [#permalink] New post 13 May 2012, 08:53
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I am vaccinating is not used in the sense of gerund which i a noun. Because of the addition of am to the present participle vaccinating, I am vaccinating turns into a present progressive, which is a verb.

If you have any further doubts, you may perhaps like to read some good guide on the verbals namely present and past participles, gerunds and infinitives – may be MGMAT’S SC guide.
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases [u]like [#permalink] New post 13 May 2012, 09:27
thanks daagh; looks like I'm going to have to do some reading of the SC guide. I just skimmed over those topics but some more in depth reading is in order...
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases [u]like [#permalink] New post 13 May 2012, 13:01
A ad B are wrong because using like means similar to which in this case they are not trying to show similar examples rather they are saying which diseases.

C and D are out because the either x or y is not parallel.
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like [#permalink] New post 06 Jan 2014, 04:05
macjas wrote:
Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and dengue have focused either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating mosquitoes with pesticides.

A and dengue have focused either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating
B like malaria and dengue have focused either on vaccinating of humans or on the extermination of
C as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or on exterminating
D as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating of humans or on extermination of
E as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or exterminating


The correct ideom is "such.. as", A/B gone.

D is gone because the past participle is not parallel to extermination.

So... when we have parallel structures that already are preceded by "or", do we need to include "or" again? This dilemma took me at least 35 of the total 85 seconds.. Then I remembered the MGMAT SC book telling me that when or comes BEFORE, using it again is superfluous.. That's why E is better than C.
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like [#permalink] New post 25 Mar 2014, 03:19
option A is not similar to the underlined part in the sentence
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like [#permalink] New post 13 May 2014, 02:23
macjas wrote:
Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and dengue have focused either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating mosquitoes with pesticides.

A and dengue have focused either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating
B like malaria and dengue have focused either on vaccinating of humans or on the extermination of
C as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or on exterminating
D as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating of humans or on extermination of
E as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or exterminating


I agree that E is best. but E is not perfect

in many other og problems on sc, gmat tells us to use dedicated noun, such as "attempt" , not doing such as "trying" , to refer to a general action. but in this problem , choice E, the oa, use doing " vaccination and exterminating" to refer to a general action,an action which is not caused by any noun in the sentence.

So, I conclude that the above rule is not obsolute rule. this is preferable rule. if it is an absolute rule, E can be eliminated immediately.

or, E is a mistake by gmat.
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases [u]like [#permalink] New post 21 May 2014, 18:19
daagh wrote:
Merely saying vaccinating may mislead. Used as an adjectival phrase, vaccinating humans may refer to those humans who do the job of vaccination. Vaccinating is a present participle and not a gerund in that instance. However, vaccinating of humans is out and out a gerund. That is why for use as a gerund, we may add the preposition of to be sure

Parallelism error is one of the most used aspects of sentence structure at least in GMAT. Although purely singular errors such as lack of parallelism alone may appear rarely in GMAT, the normal practice often is to cobble two or three errors together, of which parallelism will be one either as the primary error or as a secondary error.


Hi daagh -- thanks for the breakdown. Question for you regarding parallelism in answer choice B:

"on vaccinating of humans or on the extermination of" -- how does "the" affect parallelism? would parallelism still be ok if "the" was removed?
Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases [u]like   [#permalink] 21 May 2014, 18:19
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