1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?
(A) Some views that certain commentators consider to be implications of philosophical anarchism are highly counterintuitive.
(B) Contrary to what philosophical anarchists claim, some governments are morally superior to others, and citizens under legitimate governments have moral obligations to one another.
(C) It does not follow logically from philosophical anarchism that no government is morally better than any other or that people have no moral duties toward one another.
(D) Even if, as certain philosophical anarchists claim, governmental laws lack moral force, people still have a moral obligation to refrain from harming one another.
(E) Contrary to what some of its opponents have claimed, philosophical anarchism does not conflict with the ordinary view that one should obey the law because it is the law.
2. The author identifies which one .of the following as a commonly held belief?
(A) In most cases we are morally obligated to obey the law simply because it is the law.
(B) All governments are in essence morally equal.
(C) We are morally bound to obey only those laws we participate in establishing.
(D) Most crimes are morally neutral, even though they are illegal.
(E) The majority of existing laws are intended to protect others from harm.
3. The author's stance regarding the theory of philosophical anarchism can most accurately be described as one of
(A) ardent approval of most aspects of the theory
(B) apparent acceptance of some of the basic positions of the theory ,
(C) concerned pessimism about the theory's ability to avoid certain extreme views
(D) hesitant rejection of some of the central features of the theory
(E) resolute antipathy toward both the theory and certain of its logical consequences
4. By attributing to commentators the view that philosophical anarchism has implications that are "counterintuitive" (line 17), the author most likely means that the commentators believe that
(A) the implications conflict with some commonly held beliefs
(B) there is little empirical evidence that the implications are actually true
(C) common sense indicates that philosophical anarchism does not have such implications
(D) the implications appear to be incompatible with each other
(E) each of the implications contains an internal logical inconsistency
5. Which one of the following scenarios most completely conforms to the views attributed to philosophical anarchists in lines 37-44?
(A) A member of a political party that is illegal in a particular country divulges the names of other members because he fears legal penalties.
(B) A corporate executive chooses to discontinue her company's practice of dumping chemicals illegally when she learns that the chemicals are contaminating the water supply.
(C) A person who knows that a coworker has stolen funds from their employer decides to do nothing because the coworker is widely admired.
(D) A person neglects to pay her taxes, even though it is likely that she will suffer severe legal penalties as a consequence, because she wants to use the money to finance a new business.
(E) A driver determines that it is safe to exceed the posted speed limit, in spite of poor visibility, because there are apparently no other vehicles on the road.
6. It can be inferred that the author would be most likely to agree that
(A) people are subject to more moral obligations than is generally held to be the case
(B) governments that are morally superior recognize that their citizens are not morally bound to obey their laws
(C) one may have good reason to support the efforts of one's government even if one has no moral duty to obey its laws
(D) there are some sound arguments for claiming that most governments have a moral right to require obedience to their laws
(E) the theory of philosophical anarchism entails certain fundamental principles regarding how laws should be enacted and enforced
7. The author's discussion of people's positive moral duty to care for one another (lines 44-49) functions primarily to
(A) demonstrate that governmental efforts to help those in need are superfluous
(B) suggest that philosophical anarchists maintain that laws that foster the common good are extremely rare
(C) imply that the theoretical underpinnings of philosophical anarchism are inconsistent with certain widely held moral truths
(D) indicate that philosophical anarchists recognize that people are subject to substantial moral obligations
(E) illustrate that people are morally obligated to refrain from those actions that are crimes in most legal systems
8. In the passage, the author seeks primarily to
(A) describe the development and theoretical underpinnings of a particular theory
(B) establish that a particular theory conforms to the dictates of common sense
(C) argue that two necessary implications of a particular theory are morally acceptable
(D) defend a particular theory against its critics by showing that their arguments are mistaken
(E) demonstrate that proponents of a particular theory are aware of the theory's defects