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Most scientists believe that the decay of the ozone layer

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Most scientists believe that the decay of the ozone layer [#permalink] New post 04 Nov 2013, 21:42
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Most scientists believe that the decay of the ozone layer is a cause of global warming. With a weaker ozone layer, additional wavelengths of light reach the earth. However, the danger posed by ozone decay is not limited to global warming. The decay of the ozone layer, which enables more harmful wavelengths of light to reach the earth's surface, is also believed to cause permanent eye damage in some animals.

Which of the following is most strongly supported by the statements above?

A) All wavelengths of light from the sun that damage the eyes of animals are blocked by a healthy ozone layer.

B) Some animals do not experience damage to their eyes when exposed to unfiltered waves of light.

C) Only a handful of animal species live in places where they are exposed to the damaging light waves.

D) The rising temperature of the earth poses a severe threat to animals.

E) Some wavelengths of light that engender eye damage in certain animals are more likely to hit the earth due to ozone decay.


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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by dentobizz on 05 Nov 2013, 20:35, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Most scientists believe that the decay of the ozone layer [#permalink] New post 05 Nov 2013, 01:08
Expert's post
The argument consists of the following:
Premise 1 - most scientists think that global warming is the result of the decay of ozone layer (we are only sure that this is the scientists' opinion, however, we are not told that they are right)
Premise 2 - additional waves of light reach the earth in result of the decay of ozone layer
Premise 3 - there are other dangers involved
Premise 4 - the decay of ozone layer MIGHT be the reason for permanent eye damage in some animals (I used the word MIGHT because it is a belief and not a fact), because it lets more harmful waves reach the earth.
Conclusion?
A - incorrect, we don't know whether ALL wavelengths of light from the sun that damage the eyes of animals ARE BLOCKED by a healthy ozone layer.
B - Incorrect, we are not given any detailed data concerning damage to animals' eyes
C - Incorrect, for similar reasons as B. We are not provided with evidence supporting this answer. Moreover, it is illogical because ozone holes change their location so animals place of living should not be of importance.
D - Incorrect, the question does not address the problem of increasing temperature. We are rather concerned with data related to different wavelengths penetrating ozone layer.
E - Correct.
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Re: Most scientists believe that the decay of the ozone layer [#permalink] New post 05 Nov 2013, 01:36
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First of all, this is a MUST BE TRUE (or MAIN POINT) question, NOT STRENGTHEN question. The question asks you to find an answer that is SUPPORTED BY the stimulus. The question does not ask you to find an answer that supports the argument.

Technically, the stimulus in "must be true" question does NOT have a conclusion, just FACTS.
There are two types of correct answer:
(1) Paraphrase: a sentence in the stimulus is paraphrased.
(2) Combination: two or more facts in the stimulus are combined.


ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

Fact 1: Most scientists believe that the decay of the ozone layer is a cause of global warming.
Fact 2: With a weaker ozone layer, additional wavelengths of light reach the earth.
Fact 3: The decay of the ozone layer, which enables more harmful wavelengths of light to reach the earth's surface, is also believed to cause permanent eye damage in some animals.

Question: Which of the following is most strongly supported by the statements above?

ANALYZE EACH ANSWER:

A) All wavelengths of light from the sun that damage the eyes of animals are blocked by a healthy ozone layer.
Wrong. The stimulus does NOT say that. A is NOT SUPPORTED by the stimulus.

B) Some animals do not experience damage to their eyes when exposed to unfiltered waves of light.
Wrong. The stimulus does NOT say that.

C) Only a handful of animal species live in places where they are exposed to the damaging light waves.
Wrong. Same error as in A and B.

D) The rising temperature of the earth poses a severe threat to animals.
Wrong. The stimulus does NOT say that.

E) Some wavelengths of light that engender eye damage in certain animals are more likely to hit the earth due to ozone decay.
Correct. E is paraphrased version of fact#3. E is a must be true answer --> correct.

Hope it helps.
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Status: 1,750 Q's attempted and counting
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Re: Most scientists believe that the decay of the ozone layer [#permalink] New post 09 Nov 2013, 10:30
Official Explanation

Answer E
- Due to the question being asked, the correct answer must follow closely from the statements in the stimulus. An answer that intuitively appears correct yet fails to follow closely from the statements in the stimulus is incorrect. This answer snags a significant number of test takers. However, it is wrong because it draws too broad of a conclusion.

A. The stimulus never indicates that "all" wavelengths that damage the eyes of animals are blocked by a healthy ozone layer. Further, notice the words "which enables more." The word "more" seems to indicate that a healthy ozone enables some wavelengths to pass through.

B. The fact that the decay in the ozone layer is believed to cause permanent eye damage in some animals does not mean other animals do not experience damage. Similarly, a decay of the ozone layer does not mean that wavelengths are entirely unfiltered. It simply means that less filtering of light exists.

C. The location of the animals that are damaged is never discussed and has no relevancy on the issue at hand.

D. Although this statement is true, it is not the main (or even a main) point of the argument. Similarly, the word "severe" is too strong and not supported by the statements in the stimulus.

E. This statement captures the main argument from the stimulus. Further, it is a near rephrase of "which enables some harmful wavelengths of light to reach the earth's surface."
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Re: Most scientists believe that the decay of the ozone layer   [#permalink] 09 Nov 2013, 10:30
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