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My objective is to analyze certain forms of knowledge, not [#permalink]
05 Apr 2005, 20:27
My objective is to analyze certain forms of knowledge, not in terms of repression or law, but in terms of power. But the word power is apt to lead to misunderstandings about the nature, form, and unity of power. By power, I do not mean a group of institutions and mechanisms that ensure the subservience of the citizenry. I do not mean, either, a mode of subjugation that, in contrast to violence, has the form of the rule. Finally, I do not have in mind a general system of domination exerted by one group over another, a system whose effects, through successive derivations, pervade the entire social body. The sovereignty of the state, the form of law, or the overall unity of a domination are only the terminal forms power takes.
It seems to me that power must be understood as the multiplicity of force relations that are immanent in the social sphere; as the process that, through ceaseless struggle and confrontation, transforms, strengthens, or reverses them; as the support that these force relations find in one another, or on the contrary, the disjunctions and contradictions that isolate them from one another; and lastly, as the strategies in which they take effect, whose general design or institutional crystallization is embodied in the state apparatus, in the formulation of the law, in the various social hegemonies.
Thus, the viewpoint that permits one to understand the exercise of power, even in its more â€œperipheralâ€
1 The authorâ€™s attitude toward the various kinds of compulsion employed by social institutions is best described as
(A) concerned and sympathetic
(B) scientific and detached
(C) suspicious and cautious
(D) reproachful and disturbed
(E) meditative and wistful
2. According to the passage, states of power are transient because of the
(A) differing natures and directions of the forces that create them
(B) rigid structural framework in which they operate
(C) unique source from which they emanate
(D) pervasive nature and complexity of the mechanisms by which they operate
(E) concatenation that seeks to arrest their movement
3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes the conflict among social forces to be
(A) essentially the same from one society to another even though its outward manifestation may seem different
(B) usually the result of misunderstandings that impede social progress
(C) an inevitable feature of the social order of any state
(D) wrongly blamed for disrupting the stability of society
(E) best moderated in states that possess a strong central government