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Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals,

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Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2012, 14:13
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Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, each of which consists of a single reprroductive female and workers that defend her

A. ....
B. with each of them consisting
C. each colony consisting
D. and each of them consist
E. and each colony consisting
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: SC - Naked mole rats form colonies... [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2012, 14:16
My approach:

A: "each" modifies animals instead of colonies, so modifier err
B: "each of them" - Modifier err & pronoun referrent err
C: Seems ok
D: Pronoun refferent err
E: "and" creating a compund sentence & also instroducing an additional idea in the sentence

Debated over C vs. E and picked E
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Re: SC - Naked mole rats form colonies... [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2012, 16:03
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",and" can be used in the following situations:

1) to join two independent clauses
2) to separate the last element in a series of three or more parallel items
3) when the phrase before the "and" is set off by commas; note that in this case the ",and" is effectively there by accident, because the comma is only there as a result of the preceding clause

The ,and create a sort of clause that follows the first one but this not convey the meaning of the sentence.

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Re: SC - Naked mole rats form colonies... [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2012, 20:20
I think C is not correct as this does not have any verb, making this a fragment.
I have another doubt regarding "Workers that protect her", Here workers are plural and that is singular and workers should be modify with who not that. Please explain.
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Re: SC - Naked mole rats form colonies... [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2012, 20:49
sandal85 wrote:
I think C is not correct as this does not have any verb, making this a fragment.
I have another doubt regarding "Workers that protect her", Here workers are plural and that is singular and workers should be modify with who not that. Please explain.


Your understand about "that" is totally wrong. THAT in this case is the relative pronoun, so THAT can modify WORKERS in order to make more clear meaning "what are workers doing?". Your understanding: "THAT is singular, worker is plural" is wrong. Moreover, WORKERS here are animals, not people => cannot use WHO.
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Re: SC - Naked mole rats form colonies... [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2012, 21:23
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sandal85 wrote:
Quote:
I think C is not correct as this does not have any verb, making this a fragment.
I have another doubt regarding "Workers that protect her", Here workers are plural and that is singular and workers should be modify with who not that. Please explain.


The question of ---that-----What is the worry about something that is not underlined? An unnecessary concern about unwanted things will drain our energies in the exam hall. However, to clear the haze, a restrictive pronoun just assumes the characteristics of the noun it touches, singular, or plural notwithstanding. As has been mentioned, rats cannot be referred with who, a word reserved for human beings.

C. each colony consisting

Choice C: Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, each colony consisting of a single reproductive female and workers that defend her

This is a simple sentence with a single subject ( rats) and a single verb ( form) and a modifier- each colony consisting of a single reproductive female and workers that defend her- ( modifiers can be phrases with just ideas and need not be full fledged clauses.) Therefore, C is not a fragment
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Re: SC - Naked mole rats form colonies... [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2012, 22:04
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In E, the structure is totally changed. E is a compound sentence using two clauses and joining them with the conjunction – and -. In a compound sentence, you do need minimum two subjects and two verbs. (You can skip the subject for the second cluse, if the same subject of the first clause can stand good for the second)

E. and each colony consisting; Here the second clause after the –and - has a subject - each colony - but no verb; consisting is not a verb but a present participle; So, E is a fragment
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Re: SC - Naked mole rats form colonies... [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2013, 06:58
daagh wrote:
sandal85 wrote:
Quote:
I think C is not correct as this does not have any verb, making this a fragment.
I have another doubt regarding "Workers that protect her", Here workers are plural and that is singular and workers should be modify with who not that. Please explain.


The question of ---that-----What is the worry about something that is not underlined? An unnecessary concern about unwanted things will drain our energies in the exam hall. However, to clear the haze, a restrictive pronoun just assumes the characteristics of the noun it touches, singular, or plural notwithstanding. As has been mentioned, rats cannot be referred with who, a word reserved for human beings.

C. each colony consisting

Choice C: Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, each colony consisting of a single reproductive female and workers that defend her

This is a simple sentence with a single subject ( rats) and a single verb ( form) and a modifier- each colony consisting of a single reproductive female and workers that defend her- ( modifiers can be phrases with just ideas and need not be full fledged clauses.) Therefore, C is not a fragment


Hi daagh,
Is each colony consisting of a single reproductive female and workers that defend her an absolute phrase or appositive?
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Re: Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, [#permalink]

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An absolute phrase modifier as the name implies (just a phrase, not a clause and hence will have no verb) is a group of words that describe some action or gives additional info about something it mostly follows or modifies. It is never conjugated with a conjunction such as which or and in order to conncet it to the main clause except by a comma. An absolute phrase embraces the entire preceding clause, explaining some function or nature
On the contrary an appositive is a synonym of a noun or some noun theme, and even one can replace the modified noun with the modified. In addition, the appositive modifier is just placed next to the noun it modifies, either before or after.

Let us now apply this theory.

The modifier has no verb; it is not conjugated with a conjunction but is connected with a comma. The modifier describes the nature of composition of the colonies in question. You cannot replace the any part of the previous clause, with the modifier by itself. In addition, the modifier does not follow its noun so the given phrase is an absolute modifier rather than an appositive.
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Re: Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2013, 10:35
in the sentence A "Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, each of which consists of a single reprroductive female" - here which represents animals right?since "of approximately 20 animals" is a prepositional phrase can't which jump and refer to colonies correctly?

I have seen in few questions where which jumps after the prepostional phrase, if the meaning is correct..can someone explain the rule of which??
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Re: Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, [#permalink]

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Hi,
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I have attached a file that I have prepared on this topic; Pl see if that helps you
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Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately twenty [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2013, 23:36
Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately twenty animals, each of which consists of a single reproductive female and workers that defend her.

(A) each of which consists
(B)with each of them consisting
(C)each colony consisting
(D)and each of them consist
(E)and each colony consisting

Need explanation
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Re: Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2013, 23:48
i think its an incomplete sentence or as you say a fragment since there is no verb defining/supporting "Naked Mole Rats".
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Re: Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2013, 00:08
mun23 wrote:
Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately twenty animals, each of which consists of a single reproductive female and workers that defend her.

(A) each of which consists
(B)with each of them consisting
(C)each colony consisting
(D)and each of them consist
(E)and each colony consisting

Need explanation


Hi mun23,

this is clearly C. out of all the options u r left with C and E . why? because other options has which and them which modifies naked mole rats and not colonies r may b colonies , u dont know. so u have to choose a option with colony.
now between c and e . In E and each is not reuired , this wud lead to some parallelism which is not there in the sentence plus c is less wordy and simple . choose the one which is simple

hope this helps
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Re: Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2013, 06:17
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(A) each of which consists --- This is a run-on sentence, as only a comma separates the two ICs. In this structure, ‘each’ is the subject of the second IC and of which is a middleman.
(B) with each of them consisting --- The problem is the reference of ‘them’
(C)each colony consisting --- correct choice
(D)and each of them consist--- 1. SV error and 2. Pronoun ambiguity
(E) and each colony consisting --- fragment
Of course, choices A, B and D can be dropped because of pronoun ambiguity, although logically one might argue that either ‘which’ or ‘them’ simply stands for only colonies. Neither each of the rats nor the animals can individually have a single reproductive female and workers within themselves, while the colonies each can very well have both the features. But when there is such a blatant gap between existing structure and intended logic, I think it is safe to keep off.
But more importantly, why is C better than E? It is because of the correct grammatical structure. C is a simple sentence, consisting of a subject, a verb primarily and then a modifier that gives some more info about the previous clause. This is a concise acceptable structure.
In E, on the other hand, the structure is totally defective. We are trying to form a compound sentences with two ICs, with the help of a coordinating conjunction ’and’. But the second IC is no IC but a phrase without a verb. So this portion is a fragment. So Ace99 is indeed correct, if he wants to call E a fragment, but A as a run-on.
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Re: Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2013, 06:39
To daagh
Quote:
daagh wrote (A) each of which consists --- This is a run-on sentence, as only a comma separates the two ICs. In this structure, ‘each’ is the subject of the second IC and of which is a middleman.


i am sorry i dont agree with this as "each of which" falls into sub group modifier category so "each of which" does require a verb
the main problem with A is "colonies" is plural where as "consists" is singular
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Re: Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, [#permalink]

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Re: Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, [#permalink]

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Re: Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2014, 01:49
E is wrong because
comma+conjunction should have an Independent clause.

"and each colony consisting" is a Fragment.
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Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2014, 00:52
Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, each of which consists of a single reprroductive female and workers that defend her

A. each of which consists
B. with each of them consisting
C. each colony consisting
D. and each of them consist
E. and each colony consisting
Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals   [#permalink] 10 Aug 2014, 00:52

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