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Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over

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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink] New post 18 Oct 2013, 20:31
Hi Meghna,

Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

A)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are

B)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

C)Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

D)Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood ,

This sentence has three clause.
clause 1 : Neuroscientists,(subject)
having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,(verb-ing modifier that modifies Neuroscientists)
are (verb) now drawing solid conclusions about
Clause 2 : how the human brain grows and
Clause 3 : how babies acquire language.(clause 2 and 3 are parallel)

there is nothing wrong with the above sentence. but we should reject all the other choices for good reasons.
Choice B) this choice is wrong because a comma +and is used before "are", implying that there is another verb before "are" in the sentence. however, there is no other verb in the sentence.
choice C) it has the same problem as choice B. In addition the placing of the modifier "over the past twenty years" changes the meaning. Now the reader conclude that the development of the brain was over past twenty years
choice D) I do not find any thing wrong with this choice. this choice says that Neuroscientists
have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.
In this sentence the verb -ing form modifies entire preceding clause and expresses the result of Neuroscientists action which is having amassed a wealth of knowledge.
Choice E) Same analysis as for choice D.

what is wrong with my analysis for choices D and E?
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink] New post 21 Oct 2013, 12:13
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Hi there,

Thanks for posting your query here, as suggested. :-)

I'm happy you brought up this question, because it’s a very pertinent doubt and it shows that your thinking is thorough.

The problem with options D and E is in the use of present perfect tense. Note that the original sentence is in the present tense: Neuroscientists... are now drawing solid conclusions. In the original sentence, there is no verb in the present perfect tense. However, options D and E change ‘amassed’ into ‘have amassed’. ‘Have amassed’ is only referring to the period of twenty years, not to what is happening ‘now’. The present tense verb ‘are’ is necessary to make the meaning clear, but it’s missing from these two options. We’re talking about two separate actions here: what scientists have done over the past twenty years (amassed knowledge), and what they are doing now (drawing conclusions).

I hope this helps! :-)

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2013, 07:08
egmat wrote:
‘Have amassed’ is only referring to the period of twenty years, not to what is happening ‘now’.


Hello! Is the presence of "now" in option D not enough to suggest that it is happening now also:(.
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2013, 21:39
Hi Meghna,

Thank you very much for replying my question.

I read your reply and concluded that whenever one answer choice changes the structure of the original sentence, it can not be the right choice.
As we can see in the mentioned question the original sentence structure is subject+ ,verb-ing modifier, + simple present tense verb

but in choices E and D the sentence structure changes to subject+ present perfect tense verb + ,verb-ing modifier

In other words, in choices D and E, the verb-ing modifier in original sentence has become the main verb and the main verb in original sentence has become the verb-ing modifier.

Am i right?
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Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink] New post 26 Oct 2013, 20:18
plumber250 wrote:
Hi htskumar,

I'll leave the boys at egmat to explain their answer further for you, but see if I can help with your second question

OG12 says, The final descriptor in present tense, now drawing conclusions...does not fit the opening clause, which is in present perfect tense (have amassed a wealth...) ----> What does this exactly mean?

This means that 'have amassed a wealth' is an event that happened in the past in an action that is completed(past perfect tense if you will), but the 'now drawing conclusions' is happening now (present tense). In interpreting the meaning of the sentence, this does not make sense.

The correct answer (A) moves from 'having amassed' to 'now drawing' this is more correct, 'having done some thing I now do something else'

Does that help?

James


Isn't "have amassed" indicates something happened in the past still having effect right now? Which I thought it could be match up with "Now drawing" ?

"have" is in present tense? If it's "had amassed" then it's past perfect, right?
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Re: OG12- Q: 21, can we skip additional info [#permalink] New post 26 Nov 2013, 04:20
egmat wrote:
Image


Hi Mugdha,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Once again, I would say that you have done a good job in analyzing this one. However, the clause split for this one is not accurate. Let's look at the clauses in this sentence:

Cl. 1: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about
Cl. 2: how the human brain grows and
Cl. 3: how babies acquire language.

Since we cannot have a clause without an SV pair, the additional information cannot be identified as a clause because it does not have a Subject and a Verb.

I would never advise to skip the additional information completely while doing the PoE. The best way to answer questions where answer choices confuse us is to stay focused on the meaning of the sentence. You have understood the intended meaning of this sentence alright. Now let's compare that meaning with the meaning that we get from choices D and E.

Choice D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, - Per this choice, now the focus (main point) of the sentence is that Neuroscientists have amassed a lot of knowledge... However, per the original sentence, the focus of the sentence is that Neuroscientists are now drawing conclusions... This choice shifts the focus of the sentence completely. The main point of the sentence in Choice A is now an additional information in this choice. On this basis, we can eliminate this answer choice.

Choice E: Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, - Incorrect for the same reason as explained above.

So keep the intended logical meaning of the sentence as the main guide while doing the PoE.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi e-GMAT experts,

In the question here, option A

The ing-modifier is supposed to modify subject-verb pair. So where is the verb here ?
Is "having" a noun modfier and not a ing modifier , Please clarify ?

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Re: OG12- Q: 21, can we skip additional info [#permalink] New post 27 Nov 2013, 00:03
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ygdrasil24 wrote:

Hi e-GMAT experts,

In the question here, option A

The ing-modifier is supposed to modify subject-verb pair. So where is the verb here ?
Is "having" a noun modfier and not a ing modifier , Please clarify ?

Regards,


Hi ygdrasil24,

Note that, when placed adjacent to the subject of the clause, a "comma + verb-ing modifier" can modify either the subject or the entire clause. The modification is based on the context.

In this sentence the verb-ing modifier "having amassed..." is modifying the subject "Neuroscientists".

On a different note, the verb for the subject "neuroscientists" is "are drawing".

This question has already been addressed in detail in the following thread. neuroscientists-having-amassed-a-wealth-of-knowledge-over-96386.html#p1083520

Hope this helps :)

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Re: OG12- Q: 21, can we skip additional info [#permalink] New post 27 Nov 2013, 00:52
egmat wrote:
ygdrasil24 wrote:

Hi e-GMAT experts,

In the question here, option A

The ing-modifier is supposed to modify subject-verb pair. So where is the verb here ?
Is "having" a noun modfier and not a ing modifier , Please clarify ?

Regards,


Hi ygdrasil24,

Note that, when placed adjacent to the subject of the clause, a "comma + verb-ing modifier" can modify either the subject or the entire clause. The modification is based on the context.

In this sentence the verb-ing modifier "having amassed..." is modifying the subject "Neuroscientists".

On a different note, the verb for the subject "neuroscientists" is "are drawing".

This question has already been addressed in detail in the following thread. neuroscientists-having-amassed-a-wealth-of-knowledge-over-96386.html#p1083520

Hope this helps :)

Regards,
Krishna


Thanks Krishna, was of the view that ing modifies only the clause.
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2014, 07:28
RenukaD wrote:
Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

A)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are

B)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

C)Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

D)Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood ,

It will be helpful if experts can advise the solution and reason for the solution


The subordinate clause after neuroscientists confuses us, focus on what neuroscientists needs to be followed by given that "now" comes afterward.. Thus, we see that ARE needs to come after neuroscientists and therefor we can eliminate all options but A.

But even if you do not take this approach:

Focus on the initial split. "Have amassed" requires that "and are" follows otherwise the whole sentence is incorrect. Neither D and E have "and are" so they are gone. C is just wrong on so many levels, first of all it completely distorts the intended meaning of the author, just look at how neuroscientists is modified.. Also, "and are" makes absolutely no sense..

This leaves us with A and B. I didn't see this initially but I do now: in B "over the past twenty years" incorrectly modifies "the brain" instead of the work of neuroscientists.. There is no one universal brain and even if existed, scientists focus on its development over the past 20 years? Makes no sense.

Even if you do not notice this, B uses "and are" which is incorrect, this leaves us with A that has no errors whatsoever.
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Re: Neuroscientists [#permalink] New post 07 Apr 2014, 07:31
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how the babies acquire language.

Image

Error Analysis:

1) Plural subject “neuroscientists” has the plural verb “are”.
2) Modifier “having amassed…” correctly modifies the preceding noun neuroscientists. There is no construction error in the modifying phrase also. Thus, there is no error in this sentence.

POE:

Choice A: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are : Correct. This choice is correct as is as pointed out in sentence analysis.

Choice B: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are : Incorrect. 1) The phrase “over the past twenty years” seems to talk about the development of the brain from birth to adulthood that took twenty years to develop. However, it is the neuroscientists who took twenty years to study about the development of the brain. Thus, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence.
2) The clause preceding conjunction “and” does not have a main verb. Thus this choice is a fragment.

Choice C: Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are: Incorrect. 1) The phrase “over the past twenty years” seems to talk about the development of the brain from birth to adulthood that took twenty years to develop. However, it is the neuroscientists who took twenty years to study about the development of the brain. Thus, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence.
2) The clause preceding conjunction “and” does not have a main verb. Thus this choice is a fragment.

Choice D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. 1) In this choice, the second clause preceded by comma does not have a main verb making it a fragment.
2) Generally, a clause is introduced after the comma. But here, there is neither any subject nor any verb for the clause. Moreover, the clause is a fragment.
3) Also, the modifier “now drawing” seems to modify “adulthood” which makes no sense.

Choice E: Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. 1) In this choice, just like choice D, the second clause preceded by comma does not have a main verb making it a fragment.
2) Generally, a clause is introduced after the comma. But here, there is neither any subject nor any verb for the clause. Moreover, the clause is a fragment.
3) Also, the modifier “now drawing” seems to modify “adulthood” which makes no sense.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha


I am also your Verbal Live student.

in the above mentioned question OA is A. I did it right.

but I reasoned it on this line to eliminate D and E.

let suppose D is right for a Moment in that case Neuroscientists will have two subjects have and are so D and E cannot be correct. Is my line of thought correct?
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Re: Neuroscientists [#permalink] New post 15 May 2014, 02:45
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honchos wrote:
I am also your Verbal Live student.

in the above mentioned question OA is A. I did it right.

but I reasoned it on this line to eliminate D and E.

let suppose D is right for a Moment in that case Neuroscientists will have two subjects have and are so D and E cannot be correct. Is my line of thought correct?


Hi @honchos,

I'm assuming you meant that the subject 'neuroscientists' would have two verbs. However, 'are' is not present in options D and E, so the verb 'are drawing' becomes the modifier 'drawing' in these options.

Before we get to the problem in options D and E, let’s look at the intended meaning of choice A. Remember we need to first thoroughly understand the original sentence so that we can properly gauge the other answer choices.

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

This sentence indicates the following:
• Over the past 20 years, neuroscientists have collected a lot of knowledge about 2 things - brain and its development
• Neuroscientists are now drawing conclusions about 2 things - growth of human brain and acquiring language.
Key things to notice:

Two actions are being discussed:
a. In the past, scientists collected information
b. Now in the present context, scientists are drawing conclusions

Now let’s take a look at choice D:

Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Let’s focus on the sequencing of tenses in this sentence. For this, I will omit “now” for now. We will bring this back after this bit of discussion.

Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Let’s read this sentence now and see what meaning it communicates.
• Over the past 20 years, neuroscientists have collected a lot of knowledge about 2 things.
• The verb-ing modifier can either present result of preceding clause or elaborate on the preceding clause. Let’s see which meaning is logical here:

o Elaborating - They collected a lot of knowledge in the past by drawing solid conclusions about 2 things.
 This seems illogical since one does not collect information by drawing conclusions.

o Result - They collected a lot of knowledge in the past and this led to them drawing solid conclusions.
 This seems rather logical. After they collected knowledge, they were able to draw solid conclusions.

But notice one very important thing. In this sentence, both the actions appear to have taken place in the past. The information was collected in the past and the conclusions were also drawn in the past.

Now bring back your understanding of choice A. Per choice A, collection took place in the past but the conclusions were being drawn in the present.

So this is the first reason for rejecting choice D - the shift in the meaning of the sentence.

Now let’s bring back the word “now”. This word interferes with the logical sequence of actions established in choice D. The logical sequence as we determined was that both actions took place in the past, but the presence of “now” forces the second action to take place in present, thereby creating a conflict.

And lastly, there is a focus shift in choice D.

Note that modifiers typically do not present the main point of the sentence: they only give additional information. In the original sentence, the subject of the main clause is “Neuroscientists” and the verb is “are drawing”. So, the intended focus is to say that neuroscientists are now drawing solid conclusions about something. This focus is now shifted to the collection of information.

So, in conclusion:

It’s very important to understand the meaning of the original sentence so that you can assess answer choices in the appropriate light. Remember, grammar is a tool to help you communicate ideas. But there is no use of learning about grammar rules if you do not pay attention to what it is that you have to communicate using these tools.

I hope this helps! :-)

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink] New post 09 Jun 2014, 22:52
Although it is already explained, I am not clear with it. And I also posted the same query before.

OE for Option (D).

The final descriptor in present tense, now
drawing conclusions ... does not fit the
opening clause, which is in present-perfect
tense {have amassed a wealth ...) and seems
to modify adulthood.

Scientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge, now drawing solid conclusions.......

What is the problem with having Present perfect as main clause and a descriptor in present tense?

Second,

As in GMAT lingo, we know that -ING modifier is used for two things (1). Additional info about preceding clause (2). Result of preceding clause.

Then why OE /OG rejects option (D) saying that final descriptor seems to modify ADULTHOOD
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over   [#permalink] 09 Jun 2014, 22:52
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