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# Newtonian physics dominated science for over two centuries.

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Newtonian physics dominated science for over two centuries. [#permalink]  19 Sep 2012, 02:17
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Difficulty:

25% (low)

Question Stats:

78% (02:25) correct 21% (01:53) wrong based on 52 sessions
Newtonian physics dominated science for over two centuries. It found consistently successful application, becoming one of the most highly substantiated and accepted theories in the history of science. Nevertheless, Einstein’s theories came to show the fundamental limits of Newtonian physics and to surpass the Newtonian view in the early 1900s, giving rise once again to a physics that has so far enjoyed wide success. Which one of the following logically follows from the statements above?
(A) The history of physics is characterized by a pattern of one successful theory subsequently surpassed by another.
(B) Long-standing success or substantiation of a theory of physics is no guarantee that the theory will continue to be dominant indefinitely.
(C) Every theory of physics, no matter how successful, is eventually surpassed by one that is more successful.
(D) Once a theory of physics is accepted, it will remain dominant for centuries.
(E) If a long-accepted theory of physics is surpassed, it must be surpassed by a theory that is equally successful
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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First Attempt 710 - first-attempt-141273.html

Last edited by getgyan on 19 Sep 2012, 22:33, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Newtonian physics dominated science [#permalink]  19 Sep 2012, 06:35
1
KUDOS
Ok, so we’re dealing with a ‘find the conclusion’ type question here – so the correct answer can draw upon facts stated in the argument; nothing new can be introduced.

I think the best approach is POE:
A – That is true of Newtonian physics and Einstein’s theory, but not necessarily true of any theories prior to these. Eliminate.
B – Correct, as demonstrated by Newtonian physics being overtaken by Eintein’s theory.
C – This statement is looking into the future (which we couldn’t possibly predict... and more importantly is outside the score of the argument). This is a classic ‘because X occurred in the past, Y will occur in the future’ fallacy. Eliminate.
D – The argument doesn’t say this for every theory. It merely said that Newton’s theories were accepted for a long time. There’s no reason believe this is true in all cases
E – This is the same fallacy as D. Eliminate.

Hope that helps

B.
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Re: Newtonian physics dominated science for over two centuries. [#permalink]  24 Sep 2012, 22:04
1
KUDOS
getgyan wrote:
Newtonian physics dominated science for over two centuries. It found consistently successful application, becoming one of the most highly substantiated and accepted theories in the history of science. Nevertheless, Einstein’s theories came to show the fundamental limits of Newtonian physics and to surpass the Newtonian view in the early 1900s, giving rise once again to a physics that has so far enjoyed wide success. Which one of the following logically follows from the statements above?
(A) The history of physics is characterized by a pattern of one successful theory subsequently surpassed by another.
(B) Long-standing success or substantiation of a theory of physics is no guarantee that the theory will continue to be dominant indefinitely.
(C) Every theory of physics, no matter how successful, is eventually surpassed by one that is more successful.
(D) Once a theory of physics is accepted, it will remain dominant for centuries.
(E) If a long-accepted theory of physics is surpassed, it must be surpassed by a theory that is equally successful

this one was okay for me : Straight B

A- does not talk about any "pattern"
B- does not guarantee to be dominant indefinitely
C- the argument does not say "more" successful
D- just repeats the premise , and moreover it is pretty broad wrt to the statement above.
E- equally successful ? Is it so ?
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Concentration: Strategy, Social Entrepreneurship
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Re: Newtonian physics dominated science for over two centuries. [#permalink]  24 Sep 2012, 22:17
1
KUDOS
+1 B

Inference type

(A) The history of physics is characterized by a pattern of one successful theory subsequently surpassed by another. (We cannot call it a pattern as there are only 2 observations, eliminate)
(B) Long-standing success or substantiation of a theory of physics is no guarantee that the theory will continue to be dominant indefinitely. (This is our answer. Although Newtonian physics enjoyed success for over 2 centuries it was still replaced by Einstein’s)
(C) Every theory of physics, no matter how successful, is eventually surpassed by one that is more successful. (We cannot deduce that, too strong)
(D) Once a theory of physics is accepted, it will remain dominant for centuries. (We cannot deduce that, too strong)
(E) If a long-accepted theory of physics is surpassed, it must be surpassed by a theory that is equally successful (This is a shell type, we cannot say this for every theories of physics. “must be” is too strong)

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First Attempt 710 - first-attempt-141273.html

Re: Newtonian physics dominated science for over two centuries.   [#permalink] 24 Sep 2012, 22:17
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