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# Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles.

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Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2008, 12:53
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Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic converters, devices designed to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions, have been required in all new cars in Donia since 1993, and as a result, nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country. Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia’s capital city has always been comparatively high, nitrogen dioxide emissions there have showed only an insignificant decline since 1993.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the insignificant decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions in Donia’s capital city?

A. More of the cars in Donia’s capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993.
B. The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993.
C. Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993.
D. Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars.
E. Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2008, 13:08
C is out as we are bothered about other pollutants.
D, if true, would weaken the claim

Out of A, B & E, I can eliminate B as the no. of cars sold has declined only "slightly", so it doesn't support the insignificant decline in the emissions.

Out of A & E, E helps to explain the situation better as even though more cars are made before 1993 than after, still some cars are made which should have reduced the emissions.

My choice - E.
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2008, 13:32
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Nihit wrote:
Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic converters, devices designed to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions, have been required in all new cars in Donia since 1993, and as a result, nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country. Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia’s capital city has always been comparatively high, nitrogen dioxide emissions there have showed only an insignificant decline since 1993.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the insignificant decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions in Donia’s capital city?

A. More of the cars in Donia’s capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993. - Does not help us explain WHY insignificant change?
B. The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993. - Does not help us explain WHY insignificant change?
C. Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993.- Out of scope
D. Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars. - The stimulus says so, but this also does not explain why the insignificant change
E. Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature.- Perfect- What if the Catalytic converter does not work effectively, where is the desired change then ??

Is it E ?
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2008, 13:35
agree with the above explanation. Is the answer E ?
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2008, 20:53
Nihit wrote:
Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic converters, devices designed to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions, have been required in all new cars in Donia since 1993, and as a result, nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country. Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia’s capital city has always been comparatively high, nitrogen dioxide emissions there have showed only an insignificant decline since 1993.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the insignificant decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions in Donia’s capital city?

A. More of the cars in Donia’s capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993. -> this attracts but whats important is that argument says all new cars are made after 1993 ,and their proportion is high !!! no where it says old cars emit more of NO2
B. The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993. -> irrelevant,proportion is high hence this does not affect
C. Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993. -> outr of scope
D. Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars. -> this does not strengthen istead weakens saying pollution should reduce
E. Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature. -> inspite of good proportion of new cars ,emission is reduced insignificantly ->explains rightly

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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2008, 21:40
Nihit wrote:
Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic converters, devices designed to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions, have been required in all new cars in Donia since 1993, and as a result, nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country. Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia’s capital city has always been comparatively high, nitrogen dioxide emissions there have showed only an insignificant decline since 1993.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the insignificant decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions in Donia’s capital city?

A. More of the cars in Donia’s capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993.
B. The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993.
C. Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993.
D. Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars.
E. Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature.

Between A and E,

E) is better since if converter does not work the levels wont decrease
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2009, 05:54
A. More of the cars in Donia’s capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993---Good incorrect choice. But we are still told that there are comparatively high no. of new cars, therefore a significant drop should have been there
B. The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993-----weakens. If it has declined only slightly then a significant decline in emissions should have been seen.
C. Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993.---------out of scope
D. Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars. Does not explain the contrast
E. Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature------CORRECT
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2009, 17:12
I would go with E.
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24 Nov 2010, 07:22
Nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country as given in the argument
that means catalytic converter was actually performing its function; If it didn't than Nitrogen dioxide wouldn't have reduced at the first place.

If my understanding is incorrect please explain what role this statement plays :-
"nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country".
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24 Nov 2010, 08:57
I pick E. What's the OA?
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2010, 11:09
Expert's post
phamduyha wrote:
I pick E. What's the OA?

You are right. The answer for this question is (E).
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Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199 Veritas Prep Reviews Manager Joined: 14 Feb 2010 Posts: 161 Location: Banaglore Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 50 [0], given: 8 Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. [#permalink] ### Show Tags 24 Nov 2010, 22:50 Hi, Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature Dont you think the information marked above in red is out of bounds of the stimulus. If so how can option E be correct? Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor Joined: 16 Oct 2010 Posts: 6584 Location: Pune, India Followers: 1796 Kudos [?]: 10815 [1] , given: 212 Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. [#permalink] ### Show Tags 25 Nov 2010, 08:24 1 This post received KUDOS Expert's post zuberahmed wrote: Hi, Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature Dont you think the information marked above in red is out of bounds of the stimulus. If so how can option E be correct? Look, there are two different things. One is '[highlight]new information[/highlight]'. Your options playing the role of premises provide new information to strengthen the conclusion/weaken the conclusion/explain the paradox. The other thing is '[highlight]out of scope[/highlight]' i.e. when the option discusses something irrelevant to the argument. e.g. if I say "The country Monia's capital has witnesses a massive decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions since they introduced catalytic converters." This is out of scope because what happens in country Monia has nothing to do with what happens in country Donia. The information in red is new information which explains the paradox that though in Donia nitrogen dioxide emissions have reduced significantly, they haven't reduced in Donia's capital. In Donia's capital, people don't travel long distances and hence the catalytic converters doesn't reach their effective working temperature. _________________ Karishma Veritas Prep | GMAT Instructor My Blog Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for$199

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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. [#permalink]

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19 Jan 2012, 06:50
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
zuberahmed wrote:
Hi,

Most car trips in Donia’s capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature

Dont you think the information marked above in red is out of bounds of the stimulus. If so how can option E be correct?

Look, there are two different things. One is '[highlight]new information[/highlight]'. Your options playing the role of premises provide new information to strengthen the conclusion/weaken the conclusion/explain the paradox.
The other thing is '[highlight]out of scope[/highlight]' i.e. when the option discusses something irrelevant to the argument. e.g. if I say "The country Monia's capital has witnesses a massive decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions since they introduced catalytic converters." This is out of scope because what happens in country Monia has nothing to do with what happens in country Donia.

The information in red is new information which explains the paradox that though in Donia nitrogen dioxide emissions have reduced significantly, they haven't reduced in Donia's capital. In Donia's capital, people don't travel long distances and hence the catalytic converters doesn't reach their effective working temperature.

I totally agree with Karishma. In fact, most of the times, we can answer strengthen/weaken/paradox questions by bringing " relevant additional info". Only for assumption questions, we have to confine to the argument.
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19 Jan 2012, 09:06
E is correct
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Re: Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles.   [#permalink] 27 Dec 2015, 01:28
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