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Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term

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Re: SC GMATPrep 1 Federal Reserve [#permalink] New post 30 Jul 2010, 05:54
B.. clear, concise and meaning stated perfectly.
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Re: SC GMATPrep 1 Federal Reserve [#permalink] New post 30 Jul 2010, 11:07
Hey Noburu,

Yes, it's very confusing. Just remember, if the -ing word is modifying another word, it's not a gerund, but a participle. Gerunds are NOUNS, and participles are ADJECTIVES.

In the phrase "rising rates", "rising" is very clearly modifying "rates". Modifiers can't be nouns, and gerunds are nouns.

In the phrase "the rising of the rates", "of the rates" is a prepositional modifier modifying "the rising", which is not clearly a noun, so it must be a gerund.

Make more sense?

-t
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Re: SC GMATPrep 1 Federal Reserve [#permalink] New post 30 Jul 2010, 12:02
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey Noburu,

Yes, it's very confusing. Just remember, if the -ing word is modifying another word, it's not a gerund, but a participle. Gerunds are NOUNS, and participles are ADJECTIVES.

In the phrase "rising rates", "rising" is very clearly modifying "rates". Modifiers can't be nouns, and gerunds are nouns.

In the phrase "the rising of the rates", "of the rates" is a prepositional modifier modifying "the rising", which is not clearly a noun, so it must be a gerund.

Make more sense?

-t


Sorry Tommy, but I dont see it.

Let me provide another example that may sound familiar to you:

Tracking satellites IS important for the space agency.

According to Manhattan SC, "Tracking" is a Simple Gerund.
This is exactly how I interpret the problem at issue: Rising rates IS...

"The rising of the rates" is of course a Gerund (a complex gerund, as per MSC).

Many thanks in advance.
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Re: SC GMATPrep 1 Federal Reserve [#permalink] New post 30 Jul 2010, 16:06
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey Nusma,

That's a tough one. We sometime use "it" without a referent, so I'd allow it in answer choice E. An example of this would be "It's crazy how hot it is today." Neither "it" refers to anything, but we allow it (ha!). The bigger problem with E is the "them".

Hope that makes sense!

-t


Hi Tommy,

Aside from the question above regarding gerunds, I have another one regarding the usage of "it".
Above you say that that usage is correct. But in this other post, I understand that you say other thing (specifically when you explain why A is incorrect).
Please, could you clarify this point?

Many thanks in advance.

Here is the link, and below your post.

sc-doubt-81117.html#p734676

Hey All,

Everybody's pretty much talked this one to death, but I got asked by PM to take on one particular issue, so I'll just run through all the answer choices, while I'm here.

97. Although the coordination of monetary policy can help facilitate the orderly financing of existing imbalances, it is unlikely that its effect on their size is significant in the absence of an appropriate fiscal adjustment.
(A) it is unlikely that its effect on their size is significant
PROBLEM: The use of "it" here twice to mean two different things is grammatically unfeasible. The first "it" has no referent (That's the "it" we use to start out clauses, such as "It's crazy how much fire there is in here."), and the second refers to "the coordination..."

(B) it is unlikely that the size of their effect would be significant
PROBLEM: We want to imply the effect on the size of imbalances, not the size of the effect.

(C) affecting their sizes are not likely to be significant
PROBLEM: The subject of "are" here is...what? Maybe "affecting"...doesn't make any sense.

(D) the significance of their effect on its size is unlikely
PROBLEM: We don't mean the significance is unlikely, but that it's unlikely to be significant.

(E) its effect on their size is not likely to be significant
ANSWER: Isn't it pretty? Like in ALL the answer choices, the "its" refers to "the coordination...".

Hope that helps!

-t
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Re: SC GMATPrep 1 Federal Reserve [#permalink] New post 31 Jul 2010, 10:17
Hey Noburu,

I'll post the same response in both places, just in case. However, I believe that I'm entirely consistent in these two examples. It's okay to start a sentence/clause with it, as in: "It sure is raining a lot today." Yes, that "it" has no antecedent, but we allow this usage. In the example you cite here, the problem in answer choice A is not the first "it", but the second "it", which could be referring to "coordination" or "orderly financing". Though ambiguity is an issue that GMAT sometimes ignores and sometimes doesn't, it's clearly better here to get rid of that extra pronoun. Remember that we ALSO have a "their", which makes for three pronouns in 8 words (in answer choice A).

Hope that's clearer!

-t
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Re: SC GMATPrep 1 Federal Reserve [#permalink] New post 31 Jul 2010, 11:57
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey Noburu,

I'll post the same response in both places, just in case. However, I believe that I'm entirely consistent in these two examples. It's okay to start a sentence/clause with it, as in: "It sure is raining a lot today." Yes, that "it" has no antecedent, but we allow this usage. In the example you cite here, the problem in answer choice A is not the first "it", but the second "it", which could be referring to "coordination" or "orderly financing". Though ambiguity is an issue that GMAT sometimes ignores and sometimes doesn't, it's clearly better here to get rid of that extra pronoun. Remember that we ALSO have a "their", which makes for three pronouns in 8 words (in answer choice A).

Hope that's clearer!

-t


Perfectly clear now.

Thanks for your time, patience, and kindness!
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Re: SC GMATPrep 1 Federal Reserve [#permalink] New post 31 Jul 2010, 13:43
sunny86 wrote:
noboru wrote:
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

A gerund is an -ing word that is a NOUN formed from a verb. "The running of the bulls", for example. A participle is an -ing or -ed word that is an ADJECTIVE formed from a verb. If I say "rising interest rates", "rising" is clearly an adjective/participle modifying "interest rates". If I said, "The sun's rising came as a shock", now "rising" has become a noun/gerund. Is that clear?

-tommy


Is not so clear.
"Rising rates is a measure taken by the Federal Reserve to bla bla bla..."
In this case Rising is a gerund, and therefore Singular.

In this SC question, i dont see that "rising" is an adjective modifying rates...


Dear noboru,

I have something to add over here.

"Rising rates is a measure taken by the Federal Reserve to bla bla bla..." - here in order to interpret 'rising' as gerund, it has to be the verb 'raise' i.e. gerund formed by the verb 'raise' - 'raising' because, 'raise' is a transitive verb, needs an object (rates)
therefore, proper gerund sentence IMO needs to be, "Raising rates is a measure taken by the Federal Reserve to bla bla bla..."

hope it makes sense. correct me, if i am wrong.

thank you,


How stupid!
Many thanks. That clarify my confusion.
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Re: SC GMATPrep 1 Federal Reserve [#permalink] New post 18 Mar 2011, 07:16
x2suresh wrote:
eileen1017 wrote:
Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term interest rate against last month, analysts said that they expected orders for durable goods to decline soon because rising interest rates makes it more expensive to buy them on credit.

A. rising interest rates makes it more expensive to buy them on credit
B. rising interest rates make buying on credit more expensive
C. a rise in interest rates make it more expensive to buy on credit
D. a rise in interest rates make buying on credit more expensive
E. a rise in interest rates makes it more expensive for them to be bought on credit

Please explain your answers. Thanks.



It --> has no clear reference
A,C,E --> OUT

D- a rise -- make (wrong sub-verb agreement)

B is the best.. (rising-adj) rates -- make (No problem with S-V agreement and also No agmbiguity)


Good catch on D. I had B or D and chose D instead :( Thanks for the explanation.

D. a rise [in interest rates] make buying on credit more expensive (we should remove the bracketed preposition to make it easier to find the Subject Verb agreement)

a rise make buying on credit more expensive .. this is clearly wrong
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Re: SC GMATPrep 1 Federal Reserve [#permalink] New post 06 Apr 2011, 00:49
Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term interest rate against last month, analysts said that they expected orders for durable goods to decline soon because rising interest rates makes it more expensive to buy them on credit.

(A) rising interest rates makes it more expensive to buy them on credit
(B) rising interest rates make buying on credit more expensive -correct
(C) a rise in interest rates make it more expensive to buy on credit -
(D) a rise in interest rates make buying on credit more expensive
(E) a rise in interest rates makes it more expensive for them to be bought on credit

'It' has not clear reference - eliminate A,C,E ... a rise - singular subject - should be followed by 'makes' . D is eliminated
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Re: Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term [#permalink] New post 21 Mar 2012, 11:21
B it is....
Simple elimination....
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Re: SC GMATPrep 1 Federal Reserve [#permalink] New post 21 Mar 2012, 14:15
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

Plenty of confusion here, so I thought it might be worth my weighing in:

Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term interest rate against last month, analysts said that they expected orders for durable goods to decline soon because rising interest rates makes it more expensive to buy them on credit.

(A) rising interest rates makes it more expensive to buy them on credit
(B) rising interest rates make buying on credit more expensive
(C) a rise in interest rates make it more expensive to buy on credit
(D) a rise in interest rates make buying on credit more expensive
(E) a rise in interest rates makes it more expensive for them to be bought on credit

Okay looking here, we have a couple categories that should jump out. First is simple subject-verb agreement. We notice because the verb "make" goes singular and plural. A is out because "rising interest rates" are plural, so the verb shouldn't have an -s on the end. C and D are also out, because "a rise" is singular, so the verb should be "makes".

We're left with B and E. This is one of the VERY RARE times when it comes down to a concision/voice issue. What I mean is that B and E say the same thing, but E does it using the horribly wordy passive voice (to be bought). Notice that both B and E have a bad pronoun (them is highly ambiguous, because it could refer to durable goods, orders, interest rates...almost anything), but because they BOTH have it, we don't need to worry about this issue.

The correct answer is B. Hope that helps!

-t



Is there use of "them" in option B?
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Re: Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term [#permalink] New post 22 Mar 2012, 21:48
...............b IMO....!!!
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Re: Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term [#permalink] New post 23 Mar 2012, 04:32
B makes sense. Thanks for the explanation.
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Re: Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term [#permalink] New post 26 Mar 2012, 01:11
Rising ... rates------ subjet is rates (Plural)
a rise in...rates----- subjet is rise (singular)
hence B it is
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Re: Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term [#permalink] New post 26 Mar 2012, 01:18
Rising ... rates------ subjet is rates (Plural)
a rise in...rates----- subjet is rise (singular)
hence B it is
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Re: Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term [#permalink] New post 22 May 2012, 10:08
IMO B. interest rates are plural so need make and not makes. between B&E B is more concise.
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Re: Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term [#permalink] New post 08 Jun 2012, 20:14
nevergiveup wrote:
Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term interest rate against last month, analysts said that they expected orders for durable goods to decline soon because rising interest rates makes it more expensive to buy them on credit.

(A) rising interest rates makes it more expensive to buy them on credit
(B) rising interest rates make buying on credit more expensive
(C) a rise in interest rates make it more expensive to buy on credit
(D) a rise in interest rates make buying on credit more expensive
(E) a rise in interest rates makes it more expensive for them to be bought on credit

Please explain your answers. Thanks.



i pick B here. the subject is "rates" here. "it" does not have legit referent. E is just wordy. so B wins
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Re: Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term [#permalink] New post 24 Mar 2013, 22:24
nevergiveup wrote:
Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term interest rate against last month, analysts said that they expected orders for durable goods to decline soon because rising interest rates makes it more expensive to buy them on credit.

(A) rising interest rates makes it more expensive to buy them on credit
(B) rising interest rates make buying on credit more expensive
(C) a rise in interest rates make it more expensive to buy on credit
(D) a rise in interest rates make buying on credit more expensive
(E) a rise in interest rates makes it more expensive for them to be bought on credit

Please explain your answers. Thanks.


Sure it's B.
A, C, E are wrong because "it" is not clear.
D is wrong because "a rise" is singular, it should go with "makes", not "make".
B is clear and concise. --> Correct.
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Re: Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2013, 00:47
Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term interest rate against last month, analysts said that they expected orders for durable goods to decline soon because rising interest rates makes it more expensive to buy them on credit.

(A) rising interest rates makes it more expensive to buy them on credit it and them are ambiguous
(B) rising interest rates make buying on credit more expensive looks fine
(C) a rise in interest rates make it more expensive to buy on credit it is ambiguous
(D) a rise in interest rates make buying on credit more expensive rise and make SV agreement issue
(E) a rise in interest rates makes it more expensive for them to be bought on credit it and them are ambiguous

Hence B
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Re: Noting that the Federal Reserve had raised a key short-term [#permalink] New post 17 Jun 2014, 08:07
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