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Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun

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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2013, 23:48
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(a) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(b) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

(d) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

(e) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

My Analysis:

'triggered' is a verd-ed modifier modifying 'lowering'. 'by a drop in investment' is a prepositional modifier acting as an adverbial modifier modifiying 'triggered'. it tells us how the lowering is triggered? (Focus on 'how' adverbial modifier answers the question 'how'). As the sentence requires a modifier to refer back to 'recession' to show its effects, usage of a comma + verb-ing/absolute phrase is required.

Thus Choice A,B & C is wrong as relative clause 'which' modifies 'drop in investment' or 'investment. Neither of these are in line with the meaning of the sentence.

Choice D states that 'recession is causing people to cut...'. This sentence is bit awkward. Recession causes something and not people. Whereas in Choice E, 'recession is causing cutbacks...' This sentence makes sense. Also the structure in choice D 'causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs' is not parallel as the construction is 'verb-ing+noun+infinitive' + 'verb-ing+noun+prep modifier'. In Choice E, the parallelism is maintained: 'verb-ing+noun+prep modifier' + 'verb-ing+noun+prep modifier.

Also I see one more meaning error in D. When we state 'cycle' it implies that we will go back to the starting point. Again re-iterating 'back' in the sentence is redundant. Thus for me, It is Choice E.

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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 30 Aug 2013, 21:50
egmat wrote:
Hi Veenu,

An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(a) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(b) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

(d) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

(e) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

This one is very interesting. The key to solve this one is to understand the intended logical meaning of the sentence. So let’s do that.

MEANING ANALYSIS:

Economic recession can result from falling employment rates. By the way, the employment rates
fall is triggered by a drop in investment. Coming back to what we were talking about, the falling investment rates cause cuts in consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

Now that we understand the meaning of the question, I would like you to take a stab at this question. Analyze yourself the role of various modifiers in each answer choice and find the correct answer. Post your analysis here so that I can understand your analysis.

So all the very best.

Looking forward to your analysis. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi Shraddha,

First of all.. Thanks for this wonderful article that helped all of us to enlighten Sentence Correction fundas..!!!

I would really appreciate if you could share few more OG questions that are based on this concept, so that we can correlate and explore further..

IMO: E should be the answer..

As per the meaning, drop in investment=====> cut in consumer spending & starts a cycle of layoff

(a) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
"which" refers to drop, since "in investment" is a prepositional phrase and "which" can jump to drop as "in investment" cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence conveying the same meaning.
This sentence also states that people start a cycle of layoff, which is incorrect.. So A gone...

(b) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
Lowering of employment is triggered by drop in investment, not dropping investment.
As per original sentence, a drop in investment leads to lowering employment rates not a "dropped investment".

(c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
"cause" is incorrect, also "starting a cycle" can refer to the result of cutbacks or present how cutbacks in consumer spending were done.

(d) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.
" starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back" --> lead is incorrect, as leads should be used for "cycle"

(e) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.
This is correct as it has no error and conveys the meaning correctly..


@Shraddha: Please give your explanation.

I have a question, can a particular cause, lead to multiple effects. I am referring this in context to "comma + verb-ing" usage.

In option E, the "causing" and "starting" are happening at the same time?

Thanks,
Jai
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 04 Sep 2013, 22:38
Hi Shraddha,
I have a doubt in OG 12 #21

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

If I am not wrong, in this sentence "over the past twenty years" modifies "having amassed" and "about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood" modifies "a wealth of knowledge". In that case the noun modifier "about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood" is modifying a far away noun phrase ("a wealth of knowledge") separated from the modifier by another phrase ("over the past twenty years") that is not modifying the noun phrase. Can such modification be possible?

Since there is no other better option is this an exception to the rule for noun modifiers modifying far away nouns?
Thanks,
Sarmistha
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 05 Sep 2013, 07:46
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sarmisthadatta wrote:
Hi Shraddha,
I have a doubt in OG 12 #21

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

If I am not wrong, in this sentence "over the past twenty years" modifies "having amassed" and "about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood" modifies "a wealth of knowledge". In that case the noun modifier "about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood" is modifying a far away noun phrase ("a wealth of knowledge") separated from the modifier by another phrase ("over the past twenty years") that is not modifying the noun phrase. Can such modification be possible?

Since there is no other better option is this an exception to the rule for noun modifiers modifying far away nouns?
Thanks,
Sarmistha


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Hi Sarmistha,

What we are dealing with in this sentence are prepositional phrases. Now no fixed prepositional phrases can be said to be noun modifiers or verb modifiers. Their placement in the sentence really makes them either a noun modifier or a verb modifier. A prepositional phrase placed in a particular place in the sentence can acts as a noun modifier, but if we change its place and put it closer to a verb, then it may act as a verb modifier.

This is the reason why the rules of noun modifiers cannot be extended to the prepositional phrases that act as noun modifiers.

Once again, this is no exception to the rule. we must understand why certain rule is applicable to certain entities and not applicable to other entities is that other entities do not function in the same way as those on which the rule is applicable.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 09 Sep 2013, 23:45
That is why, it is always best to go with the meaning, instead of grammatical rules! I had solved the Emily Dickenson Problem correctly from the OG and I did know about the near-noun, far-noun modifying rule ! Grammar helps, but when in doubt, have a look at the meaning.
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 27 Sep 2013, 21:25
sir,
do only relative pronouns.... (which, who, when, where) are used as noun modifiers to modify a noun??

NOUN+ PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE+ NOUN MODIFIER.... in this a prepositional phrase modifies a noun and acts as a noun phrase

and a noun modifier only modifies a noun...

this is my analysis from your article is right?? is it right??

pls reply
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 10 Oct 2013, 23:22
egmat wrote:
prepat wrote:
Is B the correct choice? - (B) things antique has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that is bringing

that - is modifying the market and should be using singular verb. "that" can jump over the prepositional phrase 'of X and Y' to modify far away noun 'market'.


Well done there. You have done a great job. :)


Hi,

I have a question regarding this rule. By the way, thank you very much for such a great article, there are others more! Having read this article, your articles make everything perfect clear, I am now confused, though, regarding this question from MGMAT. geologists-once-thought-that-the-molten-rock-known-as-lava-85555.html
In this question, it seems to me that the right answer is C but not A, A is nonsensical to me. Can you please, explain what is the problem
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 17 Nov 2013, 02:45
egmat wrote:
prepat wrote:
Is B the correct choice? - (B) things antique has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that is bringing

that - is modifying the market and should be using singular verb. "that" can jump over the prepositional phrase 'of X and Y' to modify far away noun 'market'.


Well done there. You have done a great job. :)



Hey Shraddha

why cant THAT modify the ANTIQUE? both the words are singular
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 25 Nov 2013, 07:49
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egmat wrote:
Hi Veenu,

An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(a) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(b) a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

(c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

(d) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

(e) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

This one is very interesting. The key to solve this one is to understand the intended logical meaning of the sentence. So let’s do that.

MEANING ANALYSIS:

Economic recession can result from falling employment rates. By the way, the employment rates
fall is triggered by a drop in investment. Coming back to what we were talking about, the falling investment rates cause cuts in consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

Now that we understand the meaning of the question, I would like you to take a stab at this question. Analyze yourself the role of various modifiers in each answer choice and find the correct answer. Post your analysis here so that I can understand your analysis.

So all the very best.

Looking forward to your analysis. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Shraddha- Can you please confirm whether OA is C ? Bit confused between C and E...!

Is it an official question?
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 25 Nov 2013, 14:29
1. The decision of the European leaders to use the Continent’s bailout funds to recapitalize struggling banks would provide help to banks without directly adding to the sovereign debt of countries, which has been a problem for Spain and potentially for Italy.
Correct. debt belongs to countries. of countries is modifying sovereign debt. So which can jump in front.
2: The decision of the European leaders to use the Continent’s bailout funds to recapitalize struggling banks would provide help to banks without directly adding to the sovereign debt in the coming months, which has been a problem for Spain and potentially for Italy.
Incorrect. in the coming months isn't related to debt rather to adding. So which is modifying coming months.
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 25 Nov 2013, 14:31
Hello Shraddha, I have three questions from your first post/original explanation. Can you please clarify? Thanks.

Cannot we write the example you mentioned as below? What is wrong in the below listed line?
Complex example: The National Association of Large Distribution Businesses, known as Anged, appealed to the Madrid’s Supreme Court in Madrid, which then asked the Court of Justice for a ruling on how to apply European law covering working times.

A couple questions on below example:
Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber her letters to anyone else.
Q1: We did not mention ED anywhere directly rather we mentioned ED’s letters…. So doesn’t using ‘her’ later in the sentence give a noun pointing error? I understand the meaning when spoken but strictly going by text ‘her’ can refer to SHD because she is mentioned as a person directly. Emily may be mentioned just before 1886 but isn’t part in commas (,) considered as additional information/non-essential? If that part of sentence is so essential shouldn’t ‘which’ be replaced with ‘that’?
Q2: What is wrong in framing the sentence this way?
Emily Dickinson’s letters, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, to Susan Huntington Dickinson outnumber her letters to anyone else.
The sentence will also make sense when the part between commas is eliminated. I am not satisfied with the structure of the sentence though but grammatically what’s wrong?
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 05 Dec 2013, 09:35
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bagdbmba wrote:
egmat wrote:

An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

This one is very interesting. The key to solve this one is to understand the intended logical meaning of the sentence.

MEANING ANALYSIS:

Economic recession can result from falling employment rates. By the way, the employment rates
fall is triggered by a drop in investment. Coming back to what we were talking about, the falling investment rates cause cuts in consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

Now that we understand the meaning of the question, I would like you to take a stab at this question. Analyze yourself the role of various modifiers in each answer choice and find the correct answer. Post your analysis here so that I can understand your analysis.

So all the very best.

Looking forward to your analysis. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Shraddha- Can you please confirm whether OA is C ? Bit confused between C and E...!

Is it an official question?


Hi bagdbmba,

I came across two versions of this question, both of which contain the same sentence. However, the options differ in both of them.

IMO, Option E is the correct answer for this question.

No. This is not an official question. I believe this is an mgmat question.

Regards, :)
Krishna
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 08 Jan 2014, 18:13
hi Shraddha,
nice article!
I have 2 discussion points though from the examples stated above:
1) "Although she had been known as an effective legislator first in the Texas Senate and later in the United States House of Representatives, Barbara Jordan did not become a nationally recognized figure until 1974, when she participated in the hearings on the impeachment of President Richard Nixon, which were televised nationwide"
Here, I feel that "hearings....Nixon" is not a noun phrase but "impeachment of...Nixon" is. When we include "hearings of" to it, it sounds like a verb phrase. Considering this, the verb used after the modifier "which" shall be singular "was" and not "were" as "which" modifies "impeachment...Nixon" and not "hearings...Nixon".
Please suggest.
2) "Out of America’s fascination with all things antique have grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that are bringing back the chaise lounge, the overstuffed sofa, and the daw-footed bathtub."
Here, I agree that correct choice is "B" but in the explanation given by mandyrhtdm mentions that the relative pronoun "that" modifies "market" but I feel it modifies the noun phrase "fascination with all things antique".
Please let me know if my understanding is not correct.
Thanks in advance :)

Regards,
Saurabh
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 27 Jan 2014, 11:55
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saurabh182 wrote:
hi Shraddha,
nice article!
I have 2 discussion points though from the examples stated above:
1) "Although she had been known as an effective legislator first in the Texas Senate and later in the United States House of Representatives, Barbara Jordan did not become a nationally recognized figure until 1974, when she participated in the hearings on the impeachment of President Richard Nixon, which were televised nationwide"
Here, I feel that "hearings....Nixon" is not a noun phrase but "impeachment of...Nixon" is. When we include "hearings of" to it, it sounds like a verb phrase. Considering this, the verb used after the modifier "which" shall be singular "was" and not "were" as "which" modifies "impeachment...Nixon" and not "hearings...Nixon".
Please suggest.
2) "Out of America’s fascination with all things antique have grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that are bringing back the chaise lounge, the overstuffed sofa, and the daw-footed bathtub."
Here, I agree that correct choice is "B" but in the explanation given by mandyrhtdm mentions that the relative pronoun "that" modifies "market" but I feel it modifies the noun phrase "fascination with all things antique".
Please let me know if my understanding is not correct.
Thanks in advance :)

Regards,
Saurabh



Hi Saurabh,

Here is the first official sentence with the CORRECT OFFICIAL answer:

Although she had been known as an effective legislator first in the Texas Senate and later in the United States House of Representatives, Barbara Jordan did not become a nationally recognized figure until 1974, when she participated in the hearings on the impeachment of President Richard Nixon, which were televised nationwide.

If you carefully notice the Verb after "which", it is plural "were". Now if "which" referred to impeachment and not to the "hearings", then the Verb would be singular "was" and not plural "were". This is from the grammatical standpoint.

Now let's look at the logical point here. It were the hearings that were televised nationwide and not the impeachment. Also Barbara Jordan participated in the hearings of the impeachment and not in the impeachment. Hence, "which" refers to "hearing" and not "impeachment".

Also , just because a word ends with "ing" does not mean it will be a Verb. For example, the word "meeting" is not a Verb. It's a Noun. "Hearing" has been used in the same manner in this sentence. It is a Noun.

Now let's look the other official sentence with the CORRECT OFFICIAL answer:

Out of America's fascination with all things antique has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that is bringing back the chaise lounge, the overstuffed sofa, and the claw-footed bathtub.

In this sentence "that" DOES modify "market". It is the market that is selling all those different kind of furniture that Americans are fascinated about. This is from the meaning standpoint.

From grammatical standpoint, "that" CANNOT jump over any Verb to modify a Noun entity. The Relative Pronoun "that" needs to jump over the Verb "has grown" to modify "America's fascination...".This is NOT allowed.

Hope his helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 27 Jan 2014, 16:55
Thank you Shraddha for this article.

I have one question regarding this GMATPrep question


Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, each of which consists of a single reproductive female and workers that defend her

A. each of which consists
B. with each of them consisting
C. each colony consisting
D. and each of them consist
E. and each colony consisting


The OA is C, and I understand why it is much superior GMAT style answer; resumptive appositive "each colony" is unambiguously placed at the end of sentence which is also modified by the present participle "consisting of ..."

My question is different - can we use the approach you suggest to justify the answer choice A?
Using the "meaning" we know which cannot refer to the "animals" because an animal cannot consist of "a female rat and workers that defend her" - so it can also jump animals and modify the head of the phrase "colonies".

Can we say (if above justification is ok) although A can be justified but C is much superior and clear therefore better answer choice?


Thank you
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 28 Jan 2014, 10:18
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code19 wrote:
Thank you Shraddha for this article.

I have one question regarding this GMATPrep question


Naked mole rats form colonies of approximately 20 animals, each of which consists of a single reproductive female and workers that defend her

A. each of which consists
B. with each of them consisting
C. each colony consisting
D. and each of them consist
E. and each colony consisting


The OA is C, and I understand why it is much superior GMAT style answer; resumptive appositive "each colony" is unambiguously placed at the end of sentence which is also modified by the present participle "consisting of ..."

My question is different - can we use the approach you suggest to justify the answer choice A?
Using the "meaning" we know which cannot refer to the "animals" because an animal cannot consist of "a female rat and workers that defend her" - so it can also jump animals and modify the head of the phrase "colonies".

Can we say (if above justification is ok) although A can be justified but C is much superior and clear therefore better answer choice?


Thank you



Hi code19,

Yes, your analysis of answer Choice A is absolutely correct. It is evident that "which" logically CANNOT modify "animals". Hence it may jump over modify to "colonies". However, Choice C is far more superior in clarity and conciseness and hence, is the correct answer.

In Choice C, we have the Noun (each colony) + Noun Modifier (consisting) that conveys the intended meaning clearly.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 03 Apr 2014, 02:50
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egmat wrote:
thangvietnam wrote:
Thank you e gmat experts.

pls help more. in the following from og 13, A and B are considered wrong because noun is far. This contradict with what is said in this posting.
pls explain.

The reason is that "slightly far noun" is considered inferior though acceptable. if we have a chance to avoid the "slightly far noun" , we should do so. Is that right? , pls help

It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is
actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more
than four times the surface area of its closest rival in
size, North America's Lake Superior.
(A) It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is
actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
(B) Although it is called a sea, actually the
landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth,
which covers
(C) Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is
actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
(D) Though called a sea but it actually is the largest
lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
(E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on
Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian,
Covering


Hi @thangvietnam,

It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

I would not say that “which” modifies the preceding noun “Earth” in choices A and B and that is the reason why these two choices are incorrect.

I would reject choice A because of its construction. This choice introduces the pronoun first and then brings in the antecedent. Through PoE, I do find a better constructed, more precise, and an absolutely clear answer choice.

In choice B, I don’t agree with the placement of “actually”. I would prefer it to appear after “is” the way it does in the original answer choice. Again, I do have a better clear answer choice so I can comfortably reject choice B.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi Shraddha,
I don't have any issue with the option C as it's undoubtedly more concise and clear.

But, can you please tell me why 'which' can't modify 'Earth' as Earth, in turn, modifies 'largest lake(and hence Caspian)' ?
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 02 May 2014, 22:10
Hello Shraddha. Thanks for the article.

Please help me understand the below mentioned point.

thangvietnam wrote:
Can I say that when the phrase inserted between the far noun and its modifier modifies that noun, the modifier is acceptable ?

When the phrase inserted between the far noun and its modifier DOSE NOT modify that noun, the modifier is not acceptable?

can the rule be good for all cases?


Hi there,

Yes, your understanding is correct. If the inserted phrase is modifying the head of the noun phrase they make together then a noun modifier can modify this slightly far away noun. If this inserted phrase is not doing so, then the noun modifier will modify the preceding noun.

Thanks.
Shraddha

If your answer to the thangvietnam's post is correct then how come Simba's answer to the questions mentioned in the article is correct.


1) The decision of the European leaders to use the Continent’s bailout funds to recapitalize struggling banks would provide help to banks without directly adding to the sovereign debt of countries, which has been a problem for Spain and potentially for Italy.

In this sentence "which" is referring to sovereign debt and even though there is prepositional phrase " of countries" between which and the noun- sovereign debt, the sentence is correct because " of countries" is correctly modifying the noun sovereign debt.

2)The decision of the European leaders to use the Continent’s bailout funds to recapitalize struggling banks would provide help to banks without directly adding to the sovereign debt in the coming months, which has been a problem for Spain and potentially for Italy.

In this sentence "which" is referring to sovereign debt as well, however the prepositional phrase -"in the coming months" that is between "which" and the noun- sovereign debt is not modifying the noun but instead modifying "provide help"

Hi Simba2012,
I'm glad that you liked the article. But what makes me really happy that now you understand in which scenario "which" can modify a slightly far away noun.
Let me also congratulate for solving the execise correctly. Great job there.

You can also check out a foundation concept on Noun phrases and Noun modifiers.

noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-prequel-135910.html#p1105284

Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 13 May 2014, 12:11
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Hi kd1989,

Since you haven't used the 'quote' function on your post, it's a little difficult to figure out what your query is. I'm guessing that you would like to know why Simba's responses are correct. If so, as Simba has pointed out, the first version of the sentence is correct and the second is incorrect.

In case you would like to clarify this point in greater detail, please let me know. :-)

Thanks,
Meghna
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun [#permalink] New post 13 May 2014, 12:20
Expert's post
bagdbmba wrote:
egmat wrote:
thangvietnam wrote:
Thank you e gmat experts.

pls help more. in the following from og 13, A and B are considered wrong because noun is far. This contradict with what is said in this posting.
pls explain.

The reason is that "slightly far noun" is considered inferior though acceptable. if we have a chance to avoid the "slightly far noun" , we should do so. Is that right? , pls help

It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is
actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more
than four times the surface area of its closest rival in
size, North America's Lake Superior.
(A) It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is
actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
(B) Although it is called a sea, actually the
landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth,
which covers
(C) Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is
actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
(D) Though called a sea but it actually is the largest
lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
(E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on
Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian,
Covering


Hi @thangvietnam,

It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

I would not say that “which” modifies the preceding noun “Earth” in choices A and B and that is the reason why these two choices are incorrect.

I would reject choice A because of its construction. This choice introduces the pronoun first and then brings in the antecedent. Through PoE, I do find a better constructed, more precise, and an absolutely clear answer choice.

In choice B, I don’t agree with the placement of “actually”. I would prefer it to appear after “is” the way it does in the original answer choice. Again, I do have a better clear answer choice so I can comfortably reject choice B.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi Shraddha,
I don't have any issue with the option C as it's undoubtedly more concise and clear.

But, can you please tell me why 'which' can't modify 'Earth' as Earth, in turn, modifies 'largest lake(and hence Caspian)' ?


Hi bagdbmba,

Apologies for the delay in getting back to you on this one.

Note that 'Earth' doesn't modify 'the largest lake' here. Rather, the prepositional phrase 'on Earth' modifies the noun 'the largest lake' to tell us where the lake is located. The noun 'Earth' can't modify the noun 'lake', because logically, the Earth and the lake are not the same entity.

'Which' can't modify 'Earth' here because the Earth doesn't cover more than four times the surface area of Lake Superior; the Caspian does.

I hope this helps!

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun   [#permalink] 13 May 2014, 12:20
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