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# Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and

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Re: CR - Ankle fractures [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2008, 05:41
C..but not 100% confident..
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Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2008, 14:27
Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not
require surgery, are given follow-up x-rays because their orthopedists
are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture.
When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all
the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have
healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up
x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are
less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture
correctly.
B. Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed
by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several
hospitals were reviewed.
D. The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is
always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
E. Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone
other than ankle bones.
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24 Apr 2008, 18:36
saravalli wrote:
Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not
require surgery, are given follow-up x-rays because their orthopedists
are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture.
When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all
the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have
healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up
x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are
less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture
correctly.
B. Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed
by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several
hospitals were reviewed.
D. The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is
always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
E. Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone
other than ankle bones.

D.[for me]

The X-rays are used to check whether or not ankle fractures heals correctly.

Conclusion: it is waste money to order the x-rays of ankle fracture. This conclusion based on a finding that ankle fracture heals correctly under review of many x-rays.

Assumption: it is not neccessary to order x-rays initially. In nature, the fracture will automatically correctly heal.

So D win

Do not forget to correct me if I am wrong!
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24 Apr 2008, 18:46
sondenso wrote:
This conclusion based on a finding that ankle fracture heals correctly under review of many x-rays.

D says that the healing is "always" check by x-rays, and this doesn't mean "many" x-rays.
you got the "many" right, but "always" doesn't equate "many"...
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27 Apr 2008, 15:46
C ?
This was discussed before I believe.
saravalli wrote:
Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not
require surgery, are given follow-up x-rays because their orthopedists
are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture.
When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all
the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have
healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up
x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are
less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture
correctly.
B. Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed
by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several
hospitals were reviewed.

D. The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is
always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
E. Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone
other than ankle bones.
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Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 13:23
Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not
require surgery, are given follow-up x-rays because their orthopedists
are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture.
When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all
the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have
healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up
x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are
less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture
correctly.
B. Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed
by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several
hospitals were reviewed.
D. The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is
always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
E. Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone
other than ankle bones.
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29 Jun 2008, 16:33
IMO C.
It proves that data obtained is from statistically different place and not a skewed one.
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Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable , and do [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2009, 15:20
Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable , and do not require surgery , are given follow up x-rays because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture . When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed,however , all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. Therefore it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fractures initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument ?

(A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.

(B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.

(C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.

(D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.

(E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bones other than ankle bones.
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02 Dec 2009, 16:41
Is it C?
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03 Dec 2009, 00:00
Quote:
Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable , and do not require surgery , are given follow up x-rays because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture . When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed,however , all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. Therefore it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fractures initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument ?

(A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.-INCORRECT. Weakens the argument

(B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.CORRECT. Is consistent with the argument

(C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.Does not narrow down the focus to ankle fracture patients.

(D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.INCORRECT. Weakens the argument

(E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bones other than ankle bones.INCORRECT. weakens the argument

Therefore B it is

Whats the OA?
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03 Dec 2009, 10:38
The OA is (C) . It shows that the sample of x-ray data was probably sufficiently representative of cases of ankle fracture judged to be stable by orthopedists.
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31 Dec 2009, 08:33
B cannot be the answer since it talks about 'Many ankle injuries', which is out of scope.
By POE C is the best answer (though not very convincing).
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02 Jan 2010, 12:04
ronniebassist wrote:
Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable , and do not require surgery , are given follow up x-rays because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture . When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed,however , all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. Therefore it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fractures initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument ?

(A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.

(B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.

(C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.

(D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.

(E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bones other than ankle bones.

C is the answer acc to me since a smaller group of patients reviewed in the hypothesis above would have weakened the argument while a broad spectrum strengthens it.
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16 Jan 2010, 08:17
ronniebassist wrote:
Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable , and do not require surgery , are given follow up x-rays because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture . When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed,however , all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. Therefore it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fractures initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument ?

(A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly. Weakens the arguement. INCORRECT

(B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle. The arguement talks about follow up Xrays and not initial Xrays. Irrelevant! INCORRECT

(C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed. Correct Answer - Strengthens the arguement by showing the data range considered for the conclusion

(D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray. Talks about surgical repairing which is not being discussed. Irrelevant! INCORRECT

(E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bones other than ankle bones. Talks about bone fracture other than ankle. Irrelevant! INCORRECT

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Re: CR - Ankle Fractures [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2011, 11:26
I picked C...it strengthen the argument by stating that the study was representative enough because many hospitals and many orthopedists were reviewed.
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable , and do [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2012, 11:40
I have chosen the answer C for this question:

A. We are not really concerned about general practitioners in this case, so this is irrelevant. Also, if doctors are generally less likely to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly, this would be a reason to actually keep doing x-rays - this statement would actually weaken the argument.

B. We are concerned about the "follow-up x-rays" once a fracture has been determined. This answer choice states that "initial x-rays" are ordered for ankle injuries. Although this may seem like a good answer, the situations are not quite the same. Therefore, this is irrelevant information.

C. At first glance, I wasn't sure that this answer was correct. However, I looked at the statement "When a number of follow up x-rays were reviewed..." and determined that in order to strengthen the argument, you might want to close the "weakening" gap. A way to weaken this argument might be to say that all the reviewed x-rays were done by a single orthopedist. In order strengthen this argument, we would counter by saying that we have a very representative sample of patients who were reviewed by many different orthopedists.

D. We are not concerned with ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired (unstable fractures).

E. We only care about ankle fractures in this argument, not about x-rays for fractures in other bones.
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2013, 01:05
ankle fractures and ankle injuries are two different conceptions.
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2013, 21:00
2
KUDOS
Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not
require surgery, are given follow-up x-rays because their orthopedists
are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture.
When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all
the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have
healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up
x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are
less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture
correctly.
B. Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed
by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several
hospitals were reviewed.
D. The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is
always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
E. Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone
other than ankle bones.

A - Additional information irrelevant to the discussion
B - Additional information that strengthens the discussion - keep
C - Additional information that strengthens the discussion (to a lesser extent) - keep
D - Info. out of scope - talking about ankle fractures that are surgically reparied.
E - Not relevant.

Between B and C, I choose B. Wait for your responses. Thanks

GENERAL METHOD:

In CR, Strengthen and Assumption are always considered the most difficult questions. To solve Strengthen question, we should:
- Identify the conclusion - This is what you're trying to strengthen. MOST important.
- Personalize the argument if you can.
- Look for weaknesses in the argument - It seems contradict, but in real GMAT, the answers are always used to eliminate that weakness. Frankly, that's the logic GMAC uses

Avoid Shell game that always support a conclusion that is similar to, but slightly different from the one in the question.

APPLY:

Premise: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, --> do not require surgery, are given follow-up x-rays
Premise: When follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly
Conclusion: it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable

What is the weakness: Do the follow-up x-rays that were reviewed by the doctors represent for all follow-up x-rays in general - KEY Point.
Best answer will eliminate that weakness.

A. Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly. - WRONG - Out of scope.

B. Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle. - WRONG - SHELL GAME - Please re-read the conclusion, "it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable". The conclusion is only about the ankle fracture initially judged stable, not all ankle injuries in general. On the other hand, B is TOO GENERAL, It does NOT support a conclusion we need to strengthen.

C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed. - CORRECT - Eliminate the weakness perfectly.

D. The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray. - WRONG - Out of scope

E. Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones. - WRONG - Out of scope.

I hope it could help.

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02 May 2013, 22:10
thank you for the explanation, I felt like the light bulb in my head was just turned on after I read your explanation. Thanks. =)
JDMBA wrote:
yash500 wrote:
JDMBA - thanks but still I have question related to answer C.

C says -
C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.

Does it means that X rays from orthopedists suspected whether its true or false and hence gone for review????

No this is not what it is saying.

The author is taking data and drawing a specific conclusion from it. Whenever you see a survey, sample, poll, etc. You should always be suspect of whether the data is representative of the whole.

For instance, if you read about polls for presidentail elections back in the 1920's the polls would indicate that a certain president would win by an overwhelming majority. However, the polls were conducted via telephone and only wealthy citizens had a telephone and the conclusion reached by the poll was not representative of the total population. Hence the prediction was wrong.

In the case of this argument, the author points to a sample of Xrays that were done a second time and the injury was always healed. What if this sample is only from the Worlds Greatest Orthopedist? Would the data gathered from this Orthopedist be representative of all Orthopedists? No. This would make it impossible for anyone to make a conclusion that 2nd xrays should never be done.

So by saying that the data is gathered from "many different orthopedists working in several hospitals", you are confirming that the data is representative and therefore strengthening the argument by eliminating the possibilty that the data is representative of only the Worlds Greatest Orthopedist.
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable , and do [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2013, 11:44
ronniebassist wrote:
Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable , and do not require surgery , are given follow up x-rays because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture . When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed,however , all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. Therefore it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fractures initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument ?

(A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.

(B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.

(C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.

(D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.

(E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bones other than ankle bones.

Author's main point is We don't need follow up X rays after the ankle fracture become stable. He supports this argument by saying that :
When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed,however , all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly
Now their are many ways to strengthen the argument. In such questions involving data one can strengthen argument by adding more dimension to the data. Example here you can say that - data from different orthopedists was observed to another dimension to the argument and make it more plausible.

That's what choice C does. hence it is the answer.

Another way to think about it is :In case the premise was :
When a data from different Orthopedists x-rays was reviewed,however , all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly

The current premise would have strengthen it. ie Number of x rays from different orthopedists were studied.

Looking at other options :

(A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.
// We don't care about other doctors interpretations. out.

(B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
//It talks about initial x rays. this doesn't affect out conclusion.out.

(C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.//Correct.

(D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
// This actually weakens the author's argument.

(E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bones other than ankle bones.
[i]//other bones? This doesn't support our argument. If anything it weakens it.[/i]

Last edited by Narenn on 05 Oct 2013, 10:37, edited 1 time in total.
All similar threads have been merged.
Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable , and do   [#permalink] 21 Jun 2013, 11:44

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