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# Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and

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Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and [#permalink]

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Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 45
Page: 134
Difficulty:

Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not require surgery, are given follow-up x-ray because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture. When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.
B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.
D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Narenn on 07 Oct 2013, 09:41, edited 3 times in total.
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Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and [#permalink]

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11 Feb 2008, 09:12
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Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not
require surgery, are given follow-up x-rays because their orthopedists
are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture.
When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all
the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have
healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up
x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are
less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture
correctly.
B. Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed
by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several
hospitals were reviewed.
D. The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is
always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
E. Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone
other than ankle bones.
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Re: CR: X-Ray [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2005, 12:35
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Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not require surgery, are given follow-up x-ray because their orthopedists are concerned
about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture. When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.

B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the
x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.

C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.

D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always
checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.

E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones.

No OA on this one - we will need to come to a consensus[/quote]

I pick C because when i read the argument, the first thing that i though of was 'was the survey big enough' which fits in with C.

anyway using POE:
A compares GPs and orthos....no relevance
B talks about injuries without fracture...no relevance
C tells you that the study was extensive and done in a variety of environments, thus strengthening the fact that you can make a generalised conclusion like the one above..
D tells you that followups are done...which doesnt strengthen the argument
E says that orthos do follow ups on other injuries too...this weakens the conclusion if anything...because if they do it for other things, why should they stop for ankles.

The only remaining answer is C

well thats my way of thinking in any case
obviously could be completely off
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10 Oct 2007, 21:08
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yash500 wrote:
JDMBA - thanks but still I have question related to answer C.

C says -
C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.

Does it means that X rays from orthopedists suspected whether its true or false and hence gone for review????

No this is not what it is saying.

The author is taking data and drawing a specific conclusion from it. Whenever you see a survey, sample, poll, etc. You should always be suspect of whether the data is representative of the whole.

For instance, if you read about polls for presidentail elections back in the 1920's the polls would indicate that a certain president would win by an overwhelming majority. However, the polls were conducted via telephone and only wealthy citizens had a telephone and the conclusion reached by the poll was not representative of the total population. Hence the prediction was wrong.

In the case of this argument, the author points to a sample of Xrays that were done a second time and the injury was always healed. What if this sample is only from the Worlds Greatest Orthopedist? Would the data gathered from this Orthopedist be representative of all Orthopedists? No. This would make it impossible for anyone to make a conclusion that 2nd xrays should never be done.

So by saying that the data is gathered from "many different orthopedists working in several hospitals", you are confirming that the data is representative and therefore strengthening the argument by eliminating the possibilty that the data is representative of only the Worlds Greatest Orthopedist.
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2013, 21:00
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alimad wrote:
Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not
require surgery, are given follow-up x-rays because their orthopedists
are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture.
When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all
the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have
healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up
x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are
less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture
correctly.
B. Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed
by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several
hospitals were reviewed.
D. The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is
always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
E. Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone
other than ankle bones.

A - Additional information irrelevant to the discussion
B - Additional information that strengthens the discussion - keep
C - Additional information that strengthens the discussion (to a lesser extent) - keep
D - Info. out of scope - talking about ankle fractures that are surgically reparied.
E - Not relevant.

Between B and C, I choose B. Wait for your responses. Thanks

GENERAL METHOD:

In CR, Strengthen and Assumption are always considered the most difficult questions. To solve Strengthen question, we should:
- Identify the conclusion - This is what you're trying to strengthen. MOST important.
- Personalize the argument if you can.
- Look for weaknesses in the argument - It seems contradict, but in real GMAT, the answers are always used to eliminate that weakness. Frankly, that's the logic GMAC uses

Avoid Shell game that always support a conclusion that is similar to, but slightly different from the one in the question.

APPLY:

Premise: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, --> do not require surgery, are given follow-up x-rays
Premise: When follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly
Conclusion: it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable

What is the weakness: Do the follow-up x-rays that were reviewed by the doctors represent for all follow-up x-rays in general - KEY Point.
Best answer will eliminate that weakness.

CONSIDER EACH ANSWERS:

A. Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly. - WRONG - Out of scope.

B. Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle. - WRONG - SHELL GAME - Please re-read the conclusion, "it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable". The conclusion is only about the ankle fracture initially judged stable, not all ankle injuries in general. On the other hand, B is TOO GENERAL, It does NOT support a conclusion we need to strengthen.

C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed. - CORRECT - Eliminate the weakness perfectly.

D. The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray. - WRONG - Out of scope

E. Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones. - WRONG - Out of scope.

I hope it could help.

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14 Jun 2005, 08:07
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B is a scope shift. It deals with ankle injuries which is broader than ankle fractures.

I also pick C after POE.
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28 Dec 2006, 07:19
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C

B is explicitly mentioned in the para ... and C strengthens the argument by showing records of different orthopedist and hospitals .. all are revealing the same result
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04 Aug 2007, 21:26
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Why is it B? The conclusion states that, "it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable." The conclusion states that the ankle is already fractured, which means that answer B is out of scope as its subject is about "many ankle injuries" in a broad sense (and not just to those pertaining to ankle fractures).

I think the answer is C because the conclusion is based upon a review of "a number of follow-up x-rays." I think the question pertains to the issue of sample size and accuracy. If (as it is with answer choice C), the sample was drawn from several sources, then the findings from the sample size become less biased and more robust which would then strengthen the conclusion.
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10 Oct 2007, 21:39
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singh_amit19 wrote:
Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not require surgery, are given follow-up x-rays because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture. When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.

B. Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.

C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.

D. The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.

E. Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones.

Definitely C.

A. though could be considered "strengthening," is out of scope
B. is irrelevant because it's talking about ankle injuries in general and not just fractures
C. increases the credibility of the study by showing that it's a sample from a diverse population
D. is irrelevant because it's talking about surgically repaired ankle fractures
E. is irrelevant because it doesn't say anything about ankle fractures
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Re: CR - Ankle fractures [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2008, 07:45
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I think it's D. Here is why:

if the ankle fractures have been surgically repaired, then it is totally a waste of time and money to have an x-ray of the fractures to see whether it's fixed because that should have been concluded at the time of surgery. I think B is wrong because "many" doesn't imply "most." Just because many ankle injuries don't involve any fractures doesn't mean that most of the injuries are on the same trend.

that's just my opinion. So my answer is D
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and [#permalink]

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Expert's post
Vithal wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 45
Page: 134
Difficulty:

Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not require surgery, are given follow-up x-ray because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture. When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.
B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.
D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones.

Coming to what this is testing. We need to justify the conclusion that the followup X-Ray is a wastage of money.
Hence we need to support this statement.

Option A is out of scope as it compares the general practitioners with the orthopaedics.
Option B talks about the injuries that do not involve fractures. Hence this is out of scope.
Option C talks about a condition that will make our conclusion more sound. It says that the study is extensive, hence the conclusion can be trusted upon.
Option D is talking about some other thing. It is talking about the fractures that are repaired surgically. Out of scope
Option E is again irrelevant as it is talking about other bones.

Correct Option: C
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05 Jun 2005, 09:01
Kind of confused but would go with "C".
just because it is the best out of the rest.
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Re: CR: X-Ray [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2005, 11:37
I am with E.

C also seems but it doesnot tell about what kind of X-rays of patients. In E, it tells Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones.
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14 Jun 2005, 03:48
It's a confusing question.
I feel that C is the best choice because it strengthens the argument by stating that all the samples that passage is talking about were diverse and hence cannot be a coincidence.
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14 Jun 2005, 06:25
I think the answer is B because it says that when initial injuries are x-rayed, they too are determined to have no fractures. the paragraph deals with follow up x-rays, but makes reference to the initial diagnosis.

i realize the person who posted it doesnt have the OA, but iÂ´ve seen this question published somewhere. Does anyone have this OA??
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14 Jun 2005, 08:27
I would go with A
From the passage we know that an orthopedist's judgment about the stability of an ankle is correct. Based on this a sweeping conclusion is made saying that follow-up x-rays are a waste of money. One way to strengthen this will be as in A which says general practitioners are less likely to pass judgment about the stability of an ankle which means only orthopedists do so.
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14 Jun 2005, 08:33
I think A weakens the argument in explaining why there could have an interest to make some X-ray follow up...
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14 Jun 2005, 08:45
twixt wrote:
I think A weakens the argument in explaining why there could have an interest to make some X-ray follow up...

I do not think A weakens the argument.
The passage talks about orthopedists judgement and based on that it makes a conclusion that x-rays are a waste of money.
The assumption underlying this conclusion is that only orthopedists pass judgement - which is what A states explicitly.
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14 Jun 2005, 08:52
My vision of the stem was :

Even orthos who are the best able to judge if a fracture will heal correctly or not are prescribing some xray even unnecessarily

Doctors are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly : why does it strengthen there is no more need of follow up whereas doctors are less experienced in that matter ?

Moreover I guess it is a scope shift introducing a new category.
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14 Jun 2005, 09:16
C. All the ans choices but C seems weird.
14 Jun 2005, 09:16

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# Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and

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