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OG10- CR Flaw in reasoning [#permalink]
31 Jan 2008, 20:25
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Could you please guys help me to find out the flaw of these argument? Many thanks to all of you!
152. Mouth cancer is a danger for people who rarely brush their teeth. In order to achieve early detection of mouth cancer in these individuals, a town’s public health officials sent a pamphlet to all town residents, describing how to perform weekly self-examinations of the mouth for lumps.
Which of the following, if true, is the best criticism of the pamphlet as a method of achieving the public health officials’ goal? (A) Many dental diseases produce symptoms that cannot be detected in a weekly self-examination. (B) Once mouth cancer has been detected, the effectiveness of treatment can vary from person to person. (C) The pamphlet was sent to all town residents, including those individuals who brush their teeth regularly. (D) Mouth cancer is much more common in adults than in children. (E) People who rarely brush their teeth are unlikely to perform a weekly examination of their mouth.
79. When hypnotized subjects are told that they are deaf and are then asked whether they can hear the hypnotist, they reply, “No.” Some theorists try to explain this result by arguing that the selves of hypnotized subjects are dissociated into separate parts, and that the part that is deaf is dissociated from the part that replies.
Which of the following challenges indicates the most serious weakness in the attempted explanation described above? (A) Why does the part that replies not answer, “Yes”? (B) Why are the observed facts in need of any special explanation? (C) Why do the subjects appear to accept the hypnotist’s suggestion that they are deaf? (D) Why do hypnotized subjects all respond the same way in the situation described? (E) Why are the separate parts of the self the same for all subjects?