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One of the many theories about alcoholism is the learning

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One of the many theories about alcoholism is the learning [#permalink] New post 10 Mar 2010, 02:17
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One of the many theories about alcoholism is the learning and reinforcement theory, which explains alcoholism by considering alcohol ingestion as a reflex response to some stimulus and as a way to reduce an inner drive state such as fear or anxiety. Characterizing life situations in terms of approach and avoidance, this theory holds that persons tend to be drawn to pleasant situations and repelled by unpleasant ones. In the latter case, alcohol ingestion is said to reduce the tension or feelings of unpleasantness and to replace them with the feeling of euphoria generally observed in most persons after they have consumed one or more drinks.

Some experimental evidence tends to show that alcohol reduces fear in the approach-avoidance situation. Conger trained one group of rats to approach a food goal and, using aversion conditioning, trained another group to avoid electric shock. After an injection of alcohol the pull away from the shock was measurable weaker, while the pull toward the food was unchanged.

The obvious troubles experienced by alcoholic persons appear to contradict the learning theory in the explanation of alcoholism. The discomfort, pain, and punishment they experience should presumably serve as a deterrent to drinking. The fact that alcoholic persons continue to drink in the face of family discord, loss of employment, illness, and other sequels of repeated bouts is explained by the proximity of the drive reduction to the consumption of alcohol; that is, alcohol has the immediate effect of reducing tension while the unpleasant consequences of drunken behavior come only later. The learning paradigm, therefore, favors the establishment and repetition of the resort to alcohol.

In fact, the anxieties and feelings of guilt induced by the consequences of excessive alcohol ingestion may themselves become the signal for another bout of alcohol abuse. The way in which the cue for another bout could be the anxiety itself is explained by the process of stimulus generalization: conditions or events occurring at the time of reinforcement tend to acquire the characteristics of state of anxiety or fear, the emotional state itself takes on the properties of a stimulus, thus triggering another drinking bout.

The role of punishment is becoming increasingly important in formulating a cause of alcoholism based on the principles of learning theory. While punishment may serve to suppress a response, experiments have shown that in some cases it can serve as a reward and reinforce the behavior. Thus if the alcoholic person has learned to drink under conditions of both reward and punishment, either type of condition may precipitate renewed drinking.
Ample experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that excessive alcohol consumption can be learned. By gradually increasing the concentration of alcohol in drinking water, psychologists have been able to induce the ingestion of larger amounts of alcohol by an animal than would be normally consumed. Other researchers have been able to achieve similar results by varying the schedule of reinforcement—that is, by requiring the animal to consume larger and larger amounts of the alcohol solutions before rewarding it. In this manner, animals learn to drink enough to become dependent on alcohol in terms of demonstrating withdrawal symptoms.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) compare the learning and reinforcement theory to other theories of alcoholism
(B) discuss how the behavior of alcoholic persons is explained by learning theory
(C) argue that alcoholism is a learned behavior
(D) explain how fear and anxiety stimulate and reinforce drinking in alcoholic persons
(E) present experimental evidence in support of the learning and reinforcement theory of alcoholism
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


2. The passage contains information that answers which of the following questions?
(A) What are some of the psychosocial problems associated with alcoholism?
(B) Which has proven more effective in the treatment of alcoholism, aversion conditioning or reinforcement?
(C) Why does alcohol ingestion reduce tension and give rise to a feeling of euphoria in most people?
(D) According to the learning theory, in what cases does punishment reinforce rather than deter drinking in alcoholic persons?
(E) Are some persons genetically predisposed to alcoholism?
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


3. It can be inferred from the passage that aversion conditioning is based primarily on the principle that
(A) electric shock stimulates a response
(B) behavior that is punished will be avoided
(C) pain is a stronger stimulus than pleasure
(D) alcohol reduces fear
(E) behavior that is rewarded will be repeated
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


4. According to the passage, which of the following is true of stimulus generalization?
(A) It contradicts the learning and reinforcement theory of alcoholism.
(B) It is the process by which an organism learns to respond to one stimulus but not to similar stimuli.
(C) It supports the hypothesis that excessive alcohol consumption can be learned.
(D) It explains why people tend to avoid behavior that is associated with painful experiences.
(E) It occurs when the conditions associated with a stimulus come to evoke the same response as the stimulus itself evokes.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


5. The author cites Conger’s experiment with two groups of rats in order to
(A) show that ingestion of alcohol does not affect appetite
(B) corroborate the findings of other academic researchers
(C) show that alcohol decreases fear
(D) disprove the learning and reinforcement theory
(E) convince the reader of the usefulness of behavioral research
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


6. According to the passage, which of the following could induce an alcoholic to drink?
I. The need to relieve tension
II. Anxieties resulting from guilt feelings about previous drinking bouts
III. Punishment for alcoholic behavior
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


7. The passage contains information that supports which of the following statements?
(A) If the pleasurable taste of whisky leads to an acquired taste for brandy, then stimulus generalization has occurred.
(B) Slapping a child for misbehaving may over time encourage the child to repeat the misbehavior.
(C) If a person has learned to drink under two sets of conditions, both must be present in order to induce that person to drink again.
(D) Continued heavy use of alcohol usually causes severe damage to the body and nervous system.
(E) When consumed in moderation, alcohol may benefit health.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


8. According to the passage, how does the behavior of alcoholics appear to contradict learning theory?
(A) Learning theory holds that people are drawn by pleasant situations and repelled by unpleasant ones, but in alcoholics that pattern appears to be reversed.
(B) Contrary to learning theory, alcoholic persons do not respond to life situations in terms of approach and avoidance.
(C) The unpleasant consequences of excessive alcoholic consumption do not deter alcoholics from drinking, as might be predicted from learning theory.
(D) According to learning theory, drinking is a reflex response to an external stimulus, but for alcoholics it is more often a way to reduce an inner drive such as fear.
(E) Instead of the feeling of euphoria predicted by learning theory, alcoholics frequently experience discomfort and pain after drinking.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


9. It can be inferred from the passage that the author views the learning and reinforcement theory of alcoholism as
(A) credible
(B) unassailable
(C) outdated
(D) fallacious
(E) revolutionary
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 29 Mar 2010, 10:33
1.C 2.A 3.C 4.E 5.D 6.E 7.B 8.C 9.A

What's the OA ?
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 30 Mar 2010, 11:08
hey mojorising800,

Can you pls. post the OA !

Thanks.
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 10 Apr 2010, 10:53
IMOs for the first 4 - B,C,D,E

Kindly post the OAs!
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 12 Apr 2010, 23:37
D
D
E
D
E
D
C
C
A

Could you please post the OA ?
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 21 Apr 2010, 05:29
1. C
Based on --> 'The role of punishment is becoming increasingly important in formulating a cause of alcoholism based on the principles of learning theory.'

2. D
" While punishment may serve to suppress a response, experiments have shown that in some cases it can serve as a reward and reinforce the behavior. "

3. B
"using aversion conditioning, trained another group to avoid electric shock"

4. E
conditions or events occurring at the time of reinforcement tend to acquire the characteristics of state of anxiety or fear, the emotional state itself takes on the properties of a stimulus, thus triggering another drinking bout.

5. C
"Some experimental evidence tends to show that alcohol reduces fear in the approach-avoidance situation. "

6. E
I -"that is, alcohol has the immediate effect of reducing tension .."
II - "In fact, the anxieties and feelings of guilt induced by the consequences of excessive alcohol ingestion may themselves become the signal for another bout of alcohol abuse."
III. -"hus if the alcoholic person has learned to drink under conditions of both reward and punishment, either type of condition may precipitate renewed drinking."

7. A

"Conditions or events occurring at the time of reinforcement tend to acquire the characteristics of state of anxiety or fear, the emotional state itself takes on the properties of a stimulus, thus triggering another drinking bout."
8. C

-- >"The obvious troubles experienced by alcoholic persons appear to contradict the learning theory in the explanation of alcoholism. The discomfort, pain, and punishment they experience should presumably serve as a deterrent to drinking."
9. A
-- > "Ample experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that excessive alcohol consumption can be learned"

OA is much needed, interesting passage !
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 06 May 2010, 02:15
hi vedprakashchauhan,
thanks for the detailed descriptions. Agree with yu on most answers except 1 and 7.

1. B
--> 'The role of punishment is becoming increasingly important in formulating a cause of alcoholism based on the principles of learning theory.' This in turn tells us that learning thery is used to explain the cause of alcoholism

7. B
The role of punishment is becoming increasingly important in formulating a cause of alcoholism based on the principles of learning theory. While punishment may serve to suppress a response, experiments have shown that in some cases it can serve as a reward and reinforce the behavior.
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 28 May 2010, 20:09
zajo wrote:
hi vedprakashchauhan,
thanks for the detailed descriptions. Agree with yu on most answers except 1 and 7.

1. B
--> 'The role of punishment is becoming increasingly important in formulating a cause of alcoholism based on the principles of learning theory.' This in turn tells us that learning thery is used to explain the cause of alcoholism

7. B
The role of punishment is becoming increasingly important in formulating a cause of alcoholism based on the principles of learning theory. While punishment may serve to suppress a response, experiments have shown that in some cases it can serve as a reward and reinforce the behavior.

my answers are below :--
1 E 04:27
2 D 01:36 D
3 B 01:15 B
4 E 04:15 E
5 C 00:35 C
6 E 01:36 E
7 B 00:20 B
8 B 02:27
9 A 00:12 A

with difference in 1 and 7
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 31 May 2010, 08:17
My take is EDBEDCBAA.

OA please.
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 31 May 2010, 08:54
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I came across this passage in 1000 RC..

Here's the OA :

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B A B E C E B C A

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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 04 Jul 2010, 14:15
This passage has been picked up from the 3000RC document. The following are the OAs from the answer document:

1. B 2. A 3. B 4. E 5. C
6. E 7. B 8. C 9. A

Wish you all a pleasant RC mastering journey


nsp007 wrote:
I came across this passage in 1000 RC..

Here's the OA :

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B A B E C E B C A
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 01 Aug 2010, 17:49
B,A,B,E,C,B,B,C,A
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 29 Dec 2010, 06:28
B,A,B,E,C,E,B,C,A
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 26 May 2011, 23:41
the second should be A because: In fact, the anxieties and feelings of guilt induced by the consequences of excessive alcohol ingestion...
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 29 May 2011, 03:07
Hey Guys,

Well, i got 6 correct in this passage. The ones which i got wrong are question 2,3, and 9.
MY ans:
2 - D (i kind of screwed up in here :D)
3 - D ( i think the ans is correct)
9 - D (i think the ans is correct here too)
....below are my explaination:

Question 3:
3. It can be inferred from the passage that aversion conditioning is based primarily on the principle that
(A) electric shock stimulates a response - irrelevant
(B) behavior that is punished will be avoided - now where in the passage is it written ? unless someone knows bout this aversion technique, how can you make out that it's based on this principle? coz in the passage, it's clearly mentioned that rats were trained to avoid electric shock.
(C) pain is a stronger stimulus than pleasure - irrelevant
(D) alcohol reduces fear - like i mentioned in the above option , i think this is correct
(E) behavior that is rewarded will be repeated - clearly wrong.


Question 9:
9. It can be inferred from the passage that the author views the learning and reinforcement theory of alcoholism as
(A) credible
(B) unassailable
(C) outdated
(D) fallacious
(E) revolutionary

Quoting the 2nd paragragh:
"The obvious troubles experienced by alcoholic persons appear to contradict the learning theory in the explanation of alcoholism"

now how can the learning theory be credible? kindly explain..
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 16 Jul 2011, 21:55
Why is the answer to the first question not E? I thought the passage has put forward some experimental evidence for the learning-reinforcement theory.
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Re: 1000-RC - alcoholism [#permalink] New post 16 Jul 2011, 22:48
This is a good example of a passage where I am getting lost.

As I read, I understood the passage. But, I didn't keep on connecting with the author. As a result, by the time I finished with the passage, I felt I understood everything but I don't know what the author wants to do?

Any tips to not get lost in the content?
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Re: One of the many theories about alcoholism is the learning [#permalink] New post 04 Dec 2011, 20:57
I don't understand why the answer for 2 is a. I picked d. Is anybody who can explain why a is the answer.
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Re: One of the many theories about alcoholism is the learning [#permalink] New post 04 Dec 2011, 21:33
A little lengthy and tuff one..
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Re: One of the many theories about alcoholism is the learning [#permalink] New post 25 Dec 2011, 03:16
Finished in 15 minutes. The passage was medium complexity, with some critical words sprinkled around. Most of the questions should be considered difficult except for probably last three .

I got one wrong (Q 2 which for which I think the OA is not correct. The correct ans should be D).

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Re: One of the many theories about alcoholism is the learning   [#permalink] 25 Dec 2011, 03:16
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