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One of the questions of interest in the study of the

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One of the questions of interest in the study of the [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2010, 10:17
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One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of spiders is whether the weaving of orb webs evolved only once or several times. About half the 35,000 known kinds of spiders make webs; a third of the web weavers make orb webs. Since most orb weavers belong either to the Araneidae or the Uloboridae families, the origin of the orb web can be determined only by ascertaining whether the families are related.

Recent taxonomic analysis of individuals from both families indicates that the families evolved from different ancestors, thereby contradicting Wiehle’s theory. This theory postulates that the families must be related, based on the assumption that complex behavior, such as web building, could evolve only once. According to Kullman, web structure is the only characteristic that suggests a relationship between families. The families differ in appearance, structure of body hair, and arrangement of eyes. Only Uloborids lack venom glands. Further identification and study of characteristic features will undoubtedly answer the question of the evolution of the orb web.
17. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) settle the question of whether orb webs evolved once or more than once
(B) describe scientific speculation concerning an issue related to the evolution of orb webs
(C) analyze the differences between the characteristic features of spiders in the Araneidae and Uloboridae families
(D) question the methods used by earlier investigators of the habits of spiders
(E) demonstrate that Araneidae spiders are not related to Uloboridae spiders
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

18. It can be inferred from the passage that all orb-weaving spiders belong to types of spiders that
(A) lack venom glands
(B) are included either in the Uloboridae or Araneidae families
(C) share few characteristic features with other spider types
(D) comprise less than a third of all known types of spiders
(E) are more recently evolved than other types of spiders
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

19. According to the passage, members of the Araneidae family can be distinguished from members of the Uloboridae family by all of the following EXCEPT:
(A) the presence of venom glands
(B) the type of web they spin
(C) the structure of their body hair
(D) the arrangement of their eyes
(E) their appearance
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

20. Which of the following statements, if true, most weakens Wiehle’s theory that complex behavior could evolve only once?
(A) Horses, introduced to the New World by the Spaniards, thrived under diverse climatic conditions.
(B) Plants of the Palmaceae family, descendants of a common ancestor, evolved unique seed forms even though the plants occupy similar habitats throughout the world.
(C) All mammals are descended from a small, rodentlike animal whose physical characteristics in some form are found in all its descendants.
(D) Plants in the Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae families, although they often look alike and have developed similar mechanisms to meet the rigors of the desert, evolved independently.
(E) The Cuban anole, which was recently introduced in the Florida wilds, is quickly replacing the native Florida chameleon because the anole has no competitors.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
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12 Jan 2010, 10:21

B C B D... pls explain reasoning too
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Re: small & crispy passage [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2010, 21:51
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vageesh wrote:
One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of spiders is whether the weaving of orb webs evolved only once or several times. About half the 35,000 known kinds of spiders make webs; a third of the web weavers make orb webs. Since most orb weavers belong either to the Araneidae or the Uloboridae families, the origin of the orb web can be determined only by ascertaining whether the families are related.Recent taxonomic analysis of individuals from both families indicates that the families evolved from different ancestors, thereby contradicting Wiehle’s theory. This theory postulates that the families must be related, based on the assumption that complex behavior, such as web building, could evolve only once. According to Kullman, web structure is the only characteristic that suggests a relationship between families. The families differ in appearance, structure of body hair, and arrangement of eyes. Only Uloborids lack venom glands. Further identification and study of characteristic features will undoubtedly answer the question of the evolution of the orb web.

17. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) settle the question of whether orb webs evolved once or more than once
(B) describe scientific speculation concerning an issue related to the evolution of orb
webs
Spot on. This is the only one that makes sense. It just describes the issue.
A) it was never settled. C narrows the scope too far. It's looking at more spiders than those two. D it doesn't question any of their methods. E it doesn't really claim this. It just says one of the scientists claims this.

(C) analyze the differences between the characteristic features of spiders in the
Araneidae and Uloboridae families
(D) question the methods used by earlier investigators of the habits of spiders
(E) demonstrate that Araneidae spiders are not related to Uloboridae spiders

18. It can be inferred from the passage that all orb-weaving spiders belong to types of spiders that

(A) lack venom glands
(B) are included either in the Uloboridae or Araneidae families
(C) share few characteristic features with other spider types
(D) comprise less than a third of all known types of spiders
orb weaving spiders are 1/3 or about 1/2 of all spiders. that's 1/6 which < 1/3. Bingo
(E) are more recently evolved than other types of spiders

19. According to the passage, members of the Araneidae family can be distinguished
from members of the Uloboridae family by all of the following EXCEPT:
(A) the presence of venom glands
(B) the type of web they spin
This was the toughest one for me but I just checked it off in the passage. it doesn't say that you can distinguish the 2 by their web type. if anything it probably means they're the same
(C) the structure of their body hair
(D) the arrangement of their eyes
(E) their appearance

20. Which of the following statements, if true, most weakens Wiehle’s theory that
complex behavior could evolve only once?
(A) Horses, introduced to the New World by the Spaniards, thrived under diverse
climatic conditions.
(B) Plants of the Palmaceae family, descendants of a common ancestor, evolved
unique seed forms even though the plants occupy similar habitats throughout the
world.
(C) All mammals are descended from a small, rodentlike animal whose physical
characteristics in some form are found in all its descendants.
(D) Plants in the Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae families, although they often look
alike and have developed similar mechanisms to meet the rigors of the desert,
evolved independently.
I don't believe in evolution but just observing the reasoning here only D makes sense. We need an example of behavior (even plant behavior) where two unrelated things do the same thing. Of these choices only D provides this.
(E) The Cuban anole, which was recently introduced in the Florida wilds, is quickly
replacing the native Florida chameleon because the anole has no competitors

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Re: small & crispy passage [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2010, 12:11
BDBB.

For 20., "evolved unique seed forms" seems to convey complex behaviour.
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Re: small & crispy passage [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2010, 17:27
kaptain wrote:
BDBB.

For 20., "evolved unique seed forms" seems to convey complex behaviour.

But they're related. Wouldn't that, if anything, strengthen W's theory?
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Re: small & crispy passage [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2010, 23:52
OA IS BD BD.... MERCI VANN
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Re: small & crispy passage [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2010, 00:42
vannbj wrote:
kaptain wrote:
BDBB.

For 20., "evolved unique seed forms" seems to convey complex behaviour.

But they're related. Wouldn't that, if anything, strengthen W's theory?

Correct. I overlooked the statement "descendants of a common ancestor," and instead concentrated on the statements "the plants occupy similar habitats throughout the world." Thought if the plants are found throughout the world then they must have evolved independently. However they can be spread across the world due to various factors such as wind, birds etc carrying pollens. Obviously, I was thinking beyond the context of the passage. Classic example that answers are easily inferred by closely studying the passage.
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Re: small & crispy passage [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2010, 10:39
good one
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Re: small & crispy passage [#permalink]

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10 May 2010, 04:45
[Reveal] Spoiler:
17, B
18. B
19.B
20.B

OA ?
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Re: small & crispy passage [#permalink]

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10 May 2010, 04:48
vedprakashchauhan wrote:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
17, B
18. D
19.B
20.D

OA ?
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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2012, 02:16
I got one wrong in #2 in 5 mins. Chose B instead of D.

" About half the 35,000 known kinds of spiders make webs; a third of the web weavers make orb webs. "

Thus the answer should be D
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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the [#permalink]

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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2016, 21:30
total 5'58

B
D
B
D (cannot specifically recognize the analogy, but eliminate others and choose the most proper one...)

W's theory: Families must be related, the assumption is complex behavior evolved only once.
D: a species of plants is belonged to related families, but evolve independently.
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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2016, 05:27

Why can't the answer be B?
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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2016, 07:27
Took me 7'20'' , BDBD - all ok.
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One of the questions of interest in the study of the [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2016, 07:29
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Gayatrimane wrote:

Why can't the answer be B?

Gayatrimane

The passage only said "most" of orb-web belongs to 2 families, but in the question stem it's all - "all orb-weaving spiders belong to types of spiders that.."
Most is always smaller set than All, thereby, B is not correct.
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[4.33] In the end, what would you gain from everlasting remembrance? Absolutely nothing. So what is left worth living for?
This alone: justice in thought, goodness in action, speech that cannot deceive, and a disposition glad of whatever comes, welcoming it as necessary, as familiar, as flowing from the same source and fountain as yourself. (Marcus Aurelius)

One of the questions of interest in the study of the   [#permalink] 14 Aug 2016, 07:29
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