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One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the

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One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2013, 06:14
One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the adoption of new agricultural technologies, such as improved plant varieties and use of chemical herbicides, which would increase productivity and slow deforestation by reducing demand for new cropland. Studies have shown that farmers in developing countries who have achieved certain levels of education, wealth, and security of land tenure are more likely to adopt such technologies. But these studies have focused on villages with limited land that are tied to a market economy rather than on the relatively isolated, self-sufficient communities with ample land characteristic of rain-forest regions. A recent studyof the Tawahka people of the Honduran rain forest found that farmers with some formal education were more likely to adopt improved plant varieties but less likely to use chemical herbicides and that those who spoke Spanish (the language of the market economy) were more likely to adopt both technologies. Non-land wealth was also associated with more adoption of both technologies, but availability of uncultivated land reduced the incentive to employ the productivity-enhancing technologies. Researchers also measured land-tenure security: in Tawahka society, kinship ties are a more important indicator of this than are legal property rights, so researchers measured it by a household’s duration of residence in its village. They found that longer residence correlated with more adoption of improved plant varieties but less adoption of chemical herbicides.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. evaluate the likelihood that a particular proposal, if implemented, would ultimately succeed in achieving its intended result
B. question the assumption that certain technological innovations are the most effective means of realizing a particular environmental objective
C. discuss the progress of efforts to encourage a particular traditional society to adopt certain modern agricultural methods
D. present the results of new research suggesting that previous findings concerning one set of conditions may not be generalizable to another set of conditions
E. weigh the relative importance of three factors in determining whether a particular strategy will be successful
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


According to the passage, the proposal mentioned in line 1 is aimed at preserving rain forests by encouraging farmers in rain-forest regions to do each of the following EXCEPT
A. adopt new agricultural technologies
B. grow improved plant varieties
C. decrease their use of chemical herbicides
D. increase their productivity
E. reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


The passage suggests that in the study mentioned in line 27 the method for gathering information about security of land tenure reflects which of the following pairs of ssumptions about Tawahka society?
A. The security of a household’s land tenure depends on the strength of that household’s kinship ties, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is an indication of the strength of that household’s kinship ties.
B. The ample availability of land makes security of land tenure unimportant, and the lack of a need for secure land tenure has made the concept of legal property rights unnecessary.
C. The strength of a household’s kinship ties is a more reliable indicator of that household’s receptivity to new agricultural technologies than is its quantity of non land wealth, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is a more reliable indicator of that household’s security of land tenure than is the strength of its kinship ties.
D. Security of land tenure based on kinship ties tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of improved plant varieties, and security of land tenure based on long duration of residence in a village tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of chemical herbicides.
E. A household is more likely to be receptive to the concept of land tenure based on legal property rights if it has easy access to uncultivated land, and a household is more likely to uphold the tradition of land tenure based on kinship ties if it possesses a significant degree of non-land wealth.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


The findings of the study mentioned in the highlighted text, if valid for rain-forest regions in general, suggest that which of the following is an obstacle most likely to be faced by those wishing to promote rain-forest preservation by implementing the proposal mentioned in line 1?
A. Lack of legal property rights tends to discourage local farmers from investing the time and resources required to successfully implement new agricultural technologies.
B. The ability to evaluate the wider economic ramifications of adopting new aricultural technologies depends on a relatively high level of formal education.
C. Isolation from the market economy tends to restrict local farmers’ access to new agricultural technologies that could help them to increase their productivity.
D. Ready availability of uncultivated land tends to decrease local farmers’ incentive to adopt new agricultural technologies that would reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation.
E. Traditions of self-sufficiency and reliance on kinship ties tend to diminish local farmers’ receptivity to new agricultural technologies introduced by people from outside the local community
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D




Can someone explain how to arrive at the correct answer for Q4 here?
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Re: Rain forests [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2013, 10:07
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This how I would go about answering this questions. As I'm reading, I want to make a note of few points mentioned in the paragraph..

Quote:
with ample land characteristic of rain-forest regions
. The study phrase gives you multiple combinations such as educated or not, non land wealth, inheritance through kin,.. blah.. I would skim through these scenarios...

Next, I would read the question and go back and re-read the multiple combinations of the study one-by-one and you would come across the following phrase -
Quote:
but availability of uncultivated land reduced the incentive to employ the productivity-enhancing technologies.


Using the two quoted phrase, you should be able to select D.

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Re: One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2014, 03:50
pr90 wrote:
One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the adoption of new agricultural technologies, such as improved plant varieties and use of chemical herbicides, which would increase productivity and slow deforestation by reducing demand for new cropland. Studies have shown that farmers in developing countries who have achieved certain levels of education, wealth, and security of land tenure are more likely to adopt such technologies. But these studies have focused on villages with limited land that are tied to a market economy rather than on the relatively isolated, self-sufficient communities with ample land characteristic of rain-forest regions. A recent studyof the Tawahka people of the Honduran rain forest found that farmers with some formal education were more likely to adopt improved plant varieties but less likely to use chemical herbicides and that those who spoke Spanish (the language of the market economy) were more likely to adopt both technologies. Non-land wealth was also associated with more adoption of both technologies, but availability of uncultivated land reduced the incentive to employ the productivity-enhancing technologies. Researchers also measured land-tenure security: in Tawahka society, kinship ties are a more important indicator of this than are legal property rights, so researchers measured it by a household’s duration of residence in its village. They found that longer residence correlated with more adoption of improved plant varieties but less adoption of chemical herbicides.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. evaluate the likelihood that a particular proposal, if implemented, would ultimately succeed in achieving its intended result
B. question the assumption that certain technological innovations are the most effective means of realizing a particular environmental objective
C. discuss the progress of efforts to encourage a particular traditional society to adopt certain modern agricultural methods
D. present the results of new research suggesting that previous findings concerning one set of conditions may not be generalizable to another set of conditions
E. weigh the relative importance of three factors in determining whether a particular strategy will be successful
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


According to the passage, the proposal mentioned in line 1 is aimed at preserving rain forests by encouraging farmers in rain-forest regions to do each of the following EXCEPT
A. adopt new agricultural technologies
B. grow improved plant varieties
C. decrease their use of chemical herbicides
D. increase their productivity
E. reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


The passage suggests that in the study mentioned in line 27 the method for gathering information about security of land tenure reflects which of the following pairs of ssumptions about Tawahka society?
A. The security of a household’s land tenure depends on the strength of that household’s kinship ties, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is an indication of the strength of that household’s kinship ties.
B. The ample availability of land makes security of land tenure unimportant, and the lack of a need for secure land tenure has made the concept of legal property rights unnecessary.
C. The strength of a household’s kinship ties is a more reliable indicator of that household’s receptivity to new agricultural technologies than is its quantity of non land wealth, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is a more reliable indicator of that household’s security of land tenure than is the strength of its kinship ties.
D. Security of land tenure based on kinship ties tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of improved plant varieties, and security of land tenure based on long duration of residence in a village tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of chemical herbicides.
E. A household is more likely to be receptive to the concept of land tenure based on legal property rights if it has easy access to uncultivated land, and a household is more likely to uphold the tradition of land tenure based on kinship ties if it possesses a significant degree of non-land wealth.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


The findings of the study mentioned in the highlighted text, if valid for rain-forest regions in general, suggest that which of the following is an obstacle most likely to be faced by those wishing to promote rain-forest preservation by implementing the proposal mentioned in line 1?
A. Lack of legal property rights tends to discourage local farmers from investing the time and resources required to successfully implement new agricultural technologies.
B. The ability to evaluate the wider economic ramifications of adopting new aricultural technologies depends on a relatively high level of formal education.
C. Isolation from the market economy tends to restrict local farmers’ access to new agricultural technologies that could help them to increase their productivity.
D. Ready availability of uncultivated land tends to decrease local farmers’ incentive to adopt new agricultural technologies that would reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation.
E. Traditions of self-sufficiency and reliance on kinship ties tend to diminish local farmers’ receptivity to new agricultural technologies introduced by people from outside the local community
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D




Can someone explain how to arrive at the correct answer for Q4 here?


Hi,

Can someone explain the choices for Qn 2 & 3?
@Carcass..If you would be kind enough! :)

thank you!
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Re: One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2014, 06:33
Expert's post
tricky and nasty passage, though is short

A

Studies have shown that farmers in developing countries who have achieved certain levels of education, wealth, and security of land tenure are more likely to adopt such technologies. But these studies have focused on villages with limited land that are tied to a market economy rather than on the relatively isolated, self-sufficient communities

As you can se you can not generalize the study


B

such as improved plant varieties and use of chemical herbicides,

is the contrary , so C is the exception

C

Researchers also measured land-tenure security: in Tawahka society, kinship ties are a more important indicator of this than are legal property rights, so researchers measured it by a household’s duration of residence in its village. They found that longer residence correlated with more adoption of improved plant varieties but less adoption of chemical herbicides.

pretty much clear

D

Ready availability of uncultivated land tends to decrease local farmers’ incentive to adopt new agricultural technologies that would reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation.

Enhancing the productivity of the land owned and not going to cultivate other lands; indeed the gist of the passage


Hope is clear
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One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2014, 08:21
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Soumyasrinivas wrote:
Can someone explain the choices for Qn 2 & 3?
@Carcass..If you would be kind enough! :)

thank you!


Question 2 asks what line 1's proposal doesn't do, line 1's proposal is to preserve rain forests by helping local farmers through a few methods.
a lot of answer choices are word-by-word, so it's quick elimination

A: adopt new technology <- it's covered, the proposal is supposed to promote new technologies
B: grow plant varieties <- it's covered, one of the new technologies is plant varieties+
C: decrease herbicides <- OA, line 1 does mention improved use of chemical herbicides, but it never mentioned whether improved = decreased herbicides, I don't even know what herbicides are
D: increase productivity <- the proposal's promotion of new tech will increase productivity
E: reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation <- the proposal slows deforestation by reducing demand for new cropland



Question 3 is very tricky because it's incredibly wordy and also because OP didn't point out where line 27 is.
I assumed that the study refers to
Quote:
Researchers also measured land-tenure security: in Tawahka society, kinship ties are a more important indicator of this than are legal property rights, so researchers measured it by a household’s duration of residence in its village. They found that longer residence correlated with more adoption of improved plant varieties but less adoption of chemical herbicides.


The question asks what we can imply from this statement. Take note that leaps of logic is prohibited and GMAT wants us to pick the most boring and droning answer.

let's take a look at some answers, we'll scan out some keywords so we don't drown:

Quote:
A. The security of a household’s land tenure depends on the strength of that household’skinship ties, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is an indication of the strength of that household’s kinship ties.


refers to land security and household duration, didn't introduce anything out-of-scope, looks like a winner.


Quote:
B. The ample availability of land makes security ofland tenure unimportant, and the lack of a need for secure land tenure has made the concept of legal property rights unnecessary.


I stopped at land tenure unimportant, kinship is more important than legal property rights (for indicating land security), but they didn't say anything about land tenure being unimportant.


Quote:
C. The strength of a household’s kinship ties is amore reliable indicator of that household’s receptivity to new agricultural technologies than is its quantity of non land wealth, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is a more reliable indicator of that household’s security of land tenure than is the strength of its kinship ties.


line 27 refers kinship ties as an indicator of land security, the receptivity is not taken into consideration
some might assume that land security = more reception, but the article didn't say anything about secure farmers adopting new technologies
the only mention of receptivity is based on education, language skills and non-land wealth



Quote:
D. Security of land tenure based on kinship ties tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of improved plant varieties, and security of land tenure based on long duration of residence in a village tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of chemical herbicides.


see C

Quote:
E. A household is more likely to be receptive to the concept of land tenure based on legal property rights if it has easy access to uncultivated land, and a household is more likely to uphold the tradition of land tenure based on kinship ties if it possesses a significant degree of non-land wealth.

there is no mention of any farmer's reception on land tenure, we don't know what the farmers actually liked, the research is only talking about measuring land security
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Re: One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2014, 08:41
narmfarmer wrote:
Soumyasrinivas wrote:
Can someone explain the choices for Qn 2 & 3?
@Carcass..If you would be kind enough! :)

thank you!


Question 2 asks what line 1's proposal doesn't do, line 1's proposal is to preserve rain forests by helping local farmers through a few methods.
a lot of answer choices are word-by-word, so it's quick elimination

A: adopt new technology <- it's covered, the proposal is supposed to promote new technologies
B: grow plant varieties <- it's covered, one of the new technologies is plant varieties+
C: decrease herbicides <- OA, line 1 does mention improved use of chemical herbicides, but it never mentioned whether improved = decreased herbicides, I don't even know what herbicides are
D: increase productivity <- the proposal's promotion of new tech will increase productivity
E: reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation <- the proposal slows deforestation by reducing demand for new cropland



Question 3 is very tricky because it's incredibly wordy and also because OP didn't point out where line 27 is.
I assumed that the study refers to
Quote:
Researchers also measured land-tenure security: in Tawahka society, kinship ties are a more important indicator of this than are legal property rights, so researchers measured it by a household’s duration of residence in its village. They found that longer residence correlated with more adoption of improved plant varieties but less adoption of chemical herbicides.


The question asks what we can imply from this statement. Take note that leaps of logic is prohibited and GMAT wants us to pick the most boring and droning answer.

let's take a look at some answers, we'll scan out some keywords so we don't drown:

Quote:
A. The security of a household’s land tenure depends on the strength of that household’skinship ties, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is an indication of the strength of that household’s kinship ties.


refers to land security and household duration, didn't introduce anything out-of-scope, looks like a winner.


Quote:
B. The ample availability of land makes security ofland tenure unimportant, and the lack of a need for secure land tenure has made the concept of legal property rights unnecessary.


I stopped at land tenure unimportant, kinship is more important than legal property rights (for indicating land security), but they didn't say anything about land tenure being unimportant.


Quote:
C. The strength of a household’s kinship ties is amore reliable indicator of that household’s receptivity to new agricultural technologies than is its quantity of non land wealth, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is a more reliable indicator of that household’s security of land tenure than is the strength of its kinship ties.


line 27 refers kinship ties as an indicator of land security, the receptivity is not taken into consideration
some might assume that land security = more reception, but the article didn't say anything about secure farmers adopting new technologies
the only mention of receptivity is based on education, language skills and non-land wealth



Quote:
D. Security of land tenure based on kinship ties tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of improved plant varieties, and security of land tenure based on long duration of residence in a village tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of chemical herbicides.


see C

Quote:
E. A household is more likely to be receptive to the concept of land tenure based on legal property rights if it has easy access to uncultivated land, and a household is more likely to uphold the tradition of land tenure based on kinship ties if it possesses a significant degree of non-land wealth.

there is no mention of any farmer's reception on land tenure, we don't know what the farmers actually liked, the research is only talking about measuring land security


Hi,

That helped a lot! Thank you for the detailed explanation.

Regards
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Re: One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2015, 04:52
Very interesting passage. 1st question was a little difficult. Did not comprehend fully the D.
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Re: One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2015, 12:48
Is the difficulty level, which is 600-700 right now, of the passage correct?

In Q4, I was stuck among B,C and D. Can someone please guide why B and C are wrong.
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Re: One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2015, 00:37
Expert's post
rohitmanglik wrote:
Is the difficulty level, which is 600-700 right now, of the passage correct?

In Q4, I was stuck among B,C and D. Can someone please guide why B and C are wrong.


The findings of the study mentioned in the highlighted text, if valid for rain-forest regions in general, suggest that which of the following is an obstacle most likely to be faced by those wishing to promote rain-forest preservation by implementing the proposal mentioned in line 1?

Case study scenario is assumed to be valid for rain forest regions in general.

A. Lack of legal property rights tends to discourage local farmers from investing the time and resources required to successfully implement new agricultural technologies.
They gave more importance to kinship ties than legal property rights. This is not true.
B. The ability to evaluate the wider economic ramifications of adopting new agricultural technologies depends on a relatively high level of formal education.
farmers with certain level of education are known to adopt new tech but neither ability to evaluate ramifications is mentioned nor high level of formal education. Incorrect.
C. Isolation from the market economy tends to restrict local farmers’ access to new agricultural technologies that could help them to increase their productivity.
Quote:
studies have focused on villages with limited land that are tied to a market economy rather than on the relatively isolated, self-sufficient communities with ample land characteristic of rain-forest regions.
having only said this, info in option C cannot not be deduced from passage.

D. Ready availability of uncultivated land tends to decrease local farmers’ incentive to adopt new agricultural technologies that would reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation.
This is mentioned in below sentence in passage.
Quote:
but availability of uncultivated land reduced the incentive to employ the productivity-enhancing technologies.

E. Traditions of self-sufficiency and reliance on kinship ties tend to diminish local farmers’ receptivity to new agricultural technologies introduced by people from outside the local community
self sufficiency may discourage framers to new tech but we don't have reason to say that kinship ties can result in such cases.
people from inside or outside the community is out of scope.

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