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Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2013, 01:44
Zarrolou wrote:
akhandamandala wrote:
Hi there,
I'm grateful if anyone help to explain the problem of which-clause in A C and D. If we consider which-clause will modify the noun right before it, the which-clause in A is right after "emission" and accepted, while in D & C is not accepted. Why???
Is is true that noun in an adjective /participle and preposition phrase cannot be an antecedent ???

Thanks


(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

The intended subject of "which" is the "technique". In option A "which" correctly modifies it, but in option C (and D) the noun "technique" is too far away: "which" cannot jump to it.
Even though in A the preceding noun is "emission" the modifier which refers to the "technique", and this is an exception of the touching rule of this modifier.

So if you have something like : noun + modifier/perp phrase, which <== the which jumps to the noun, ignoring the modifier/perp phrase.

Another Official question that tests the same: emily-dickinsons-letters-to-susan-huntington-dickinson-were-10142.html

Hope everything is clear


Thank you, I got it. So this is an exception.
One more small question. Most of the case which-clause should be converted to present participle phrase to modify the whole preceding clause or subject of the preceding clause???
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2013, 07:57
in one not all of grammar books, a rule is mentioned. The rule is

NOUN+PREPOSTIONAL PHRASE+PARTICIPLE PHRASE+ RELATIVE CLAUSE

when there are many post modifier of a noun, the order must be above.

choice A

a technic, call.........., which......

is an example of the rule.

because not all of grammar book dictate this rule, We find hard to accept choice A.

but it is still basic grammar. READING SOME OF GRAMMAR BOOK WILL HELP.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2013, 08:03
akhandamandala wrote:
Thank you, I got it. So this is an exception.
One more small question. Most of the case which-clause should be converted to present participle phrase to modify the whole preceding clause or subject of the preceding clause???


I do not get what you mean by "Most of the case which-clause should be converted", in the GMAT you cannot convert clauses, you choose the best one...

I can give you this response, tell me if it's enough:

"which" cannot modify a clause. (this is a rule)

So "which" will refer to a single noun, that can be or not the subject of the preceding clause; but the "which" can be correctly used in both cases (referring to the subject or to another noun).

Hope this helps!
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2013, 11:19
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
Correct ! As 'Originally developed' modifies 'a technique' and 'which' modifies 'x-ray emission' and the sentence has a verb 'is finding'
(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission
Two Long modifiers in a sequence => awkwardness
(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants,called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
Cutting of non-essential modifier , sentence doesn't make sense.
(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
Same as (C).
(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
Quickly should modify CAN and has been placed incorrectly.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2013, 13:29
as my understanding now, the original sentence is correct because it is the exception to touch rule.
MGMAT calls this case "mission critical" modifier that defines the noun. The less important modifier refers to the noun plus the first modifier.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink] New post 06 Nov 2013, 12:48
I am kind of confuse on OG's reasoning that explains usage of Which and how it explains in choice C.

I thought ",which" can only refer to the preceded noun only....
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink] New post 07 Jan 2014, 01:53
gmatpunjabi wrote:
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,


Why and how is the OA correct. Why is the use of "which" correct in Answer A, but not C/



The construction is as follows:

[Prepositional phrase], [subject], [inessential clause], "...is finding bla bla bla" and this is actually - although ugly - a correct structure. D could be considered a contender but has the form of [subject] [subject modifier] [inessential clause] and this distorts the intended meaning. The two clauses must "touch" the subject..

If anyone is having problem with concepts like these, I recommend MGMAT's SC book, read the chapter on modifiers.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink] New post 02 Aug 2014, 09:54
Can someone help me in understanding what Gmat means by following for option B?
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission
second modifier {having..) actually modifies the first modifier.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink] New post 02 Aug 2014, 15:54
egmat wrote:
thangvietnam wrote:
In C and D, "developed" is parallel to " called" , so we need "and" to connect them.

There is no "and" so, C and D are wrong.
please, confirm/comment.


Hi there,

Yes, you are correct in saying that “developed” and “called” are parallel in the sense that both are verb-ed modifiers that modifies “a technique”.

Now, the usage of “called” or “named” is little different from other verb-ed modifiers. “Called” and “named” must be placed immediately after the entities they modify. They cannot be placed far away as seen in Choices C and D.
So yes, in a way we can say that placing only “and” without preceded by comma before “called” can solve this modification error. But, this will make the choices wordy. In choice A, both these modifiers are placed perfectly.
Also, there are “which” modification error in choice C and D. These also make choices C and D incorrect.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha


Thank you for the explanation. You made it clear that C is incorrect.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink] New post 21 Aug 2014, 00:57
I find no proper explanation for this question.

a hard one.

we have 3 modifier and 1 noun.

The best way to express this is the order in choice A : the noun is in between the two do-ed phrases. in C, D and E, the 3 modifiers are at one side of the noun, creating unclearness.

in choice B, we have 3 do-ed modifiers. I think it is better to use two do-ed phrase and one "which clause" because this is more clear.
normally, do-ed phrase should modifiy the noun following, so putting two do-ed phrase together, though this putting is grammatical because the two do-ed phrases belong to different kinds, can make unclearness. putting two do-ed phrases together without "and" feels that the first do-ed phrase modifies the second do-ed phrase. this is not good.

in this problem, I thing gmat test us another preference, not an absolute rule, " avoid putting two do-ed modifiers together".
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a   [#permalink] 21 Aug 2014, 00:57
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