Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate

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Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2012, 03:05
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Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate back to health, the chief executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearlv 512 billion in assets over the next 18 months.

A executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12billion in assets over the next 18 months B executive's plans, which are to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly$12 billion in assets over the next 18 months were announced on Wednesday.
C executive's plans for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months were announced on Wednesday. D executive announced plans Wednesday to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly$12billion in assets over the next 18 months
E executive announced plans Wednesday that are to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12billion in assets over the next 18 months Okay i understand that in US without preposition on we can write the sentence as in option [Reveal] Spoiler: D , my question is why explanations say that Outlining his strategy is a dangling modifier . i feel Outlining HIS can modify Executive's plan. I think plan can also outline his strategy .. and these plans could also be announced by some one else.As in "Results were announced on Wednesday" .The idea of plan outlining strategy perfectly makes sense to me. In c the only flaw i see is for cutting is not preferable when to cut is present but other wise it is correct. I will also provide an example to make my point , veterans must have seen this questions : Q)So dogged were Frances Perkins’investigations of the garment industry, and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker. OA : so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that A crystal clear explanation would be much appreciated. [Reveal] Spoiler: OA _________________ Only those who will risk going too far can possibly find out how far one can go. ... T.S. Eliot If you have any questions you can ask an expert New! e-GMAT Representative Joined: 02 Nov 2011 Posts: 1995 Followers: 2054 Kudos [?]: 6990 [2] , given: 262 Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink] ### Show Tags 10 Jul 2012, 06:13 2 This post received KUDOS Expert's post Hi there, Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate back to health, the chief executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly 512 billion in assets over the next 18 months. We certainly have modifier issue in this sentence. The opening verb-ing modifier “outlining…” is in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. Now this modifier denotes some action. It denotes the action of someone outlining “his” strategy for something. Hence, it needs a doer. The context of the sentence clearly tells us that it was the chief executive who outlined his plans by announcing. Let’s take a simple example here: 1. Riding a bicycle, Joe crossed the bridge. The opening modifier “riding” denotes an action. It needs a doer for that action. Hence, this modifier associates with the subject of the following clause “Joe”. This makes perfect sense because Joe rode the bicycle and that’s how he crossed the bridge. Here the verb-ing modifier “riding” makes sense with the subject “Joe”. Also notice that here the opening modifier is modifying the entire following clause and not just the subject “Joe”. 2. Presenting detail of his project, Joe’s plans were announced to start the production within thirty days. Now in this sentence, you might argue “Joe’s plan”, the subject, can very well be associated with “presenting” as plans can present details. OK. However, “presenting” needs doer and “Joe’s plan” cannot be a doer because someone else announced the plan. Also notice that the opening modifier is not only modifying the subject of the main clause. It is modifying the entire main clause. It is talking about the detail that was presented, that is the production date. Hence the above mentioned sentence is incorrect. The official question suffers from the same flaw. The opening modifier needs a doer and “chief executive’s plans” cannot be that doer. Also the opening modifier should modify the entire main clause because the main clause talks about the strategy outlined by the executive. Now let’s come to the example that you have cited: So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the garment industry, and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker. Here the sentence structure is very different from the “chief executive’s plan” sentence. Here we have an opening dependent clause that is the cause followed by the main clause that is the effect. The correct answer follows the construction of “so X that Y”. This construction correctly and clearly presents the cause-effect relationship between the two clauses. In the question at hand, this is not the scenario. Here we have an opening verb-ing modifier that needs a doer as well as it must modify the following clause as well. Hence, choice D is the correct answer. PS: To know in detail about the function of the verb-ing modifier when it appears in the ebginning of the sentence, view more examples, and practise quiz, log on to e-gmat.com, register for free and go thorugh the concept "Modifiers - Verb-ing" listed in the preview level concepts that are free. Hope this helps. Thanks. Shraddha _________________ | '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com Retired Moderator Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying Joined: 19 Feb 2007 Posts: 3623 Location: India WE: Education (Education) Followers: 687 Kudos [?]: 5372 [0], given: 321 Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink] ### Show Tags 12 Jul 2012, 08:55 @ faltuhaiye11 I hope the importance of the possessive pronoun ‘his’ is not lost sight of, because it is too small. If you are attributing the announcement to some plans, one can't justify the use of the masculine pronoun ‘his’ Even for argument's sake if we were to say, it is be some other person who announced , the pronoun's reference will be ambiguous.Therefore, it is best to accept the Chief Executive as the announcer, which is what the passage intends to say. Your other example is a test of //ism and not of modification. So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the garment industry, and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker. OA: so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that This choice is taken for two things namely 1) - so dogged, so persistent - are parallel and 2) you require a connector such as ‘that’, to merge two clauses in a complex sentence. (IMO, the official answer is flawed in that it is missing the conjunction and before the second factor, which might have properly connected the two arms of the subordinate clause.). Can you please tell me how it is related to modification? _________________ “Better than a thousand days of diligent study is one day with a great teacher” – a Japanese proverb. 9884544509 Manager Joined: 09 Jun 2012 Posts: 112 GMAT 1: 670 Q42 V40 GPA: 2.94 WE: Consulting (Manufacturing) Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 14 [0], given: 8 Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink] ### Show Tags 13 Jul 2012, 01:08 'D' opening modifiers can be very tricky. just ask yourself who was outlining his strategy? the executive or the executive's plan? Intern Joined: 08 Dec 2012 Posts: 7 Concentration: General Management, Strategy GMAT 1: 660 Q44 V36 GPA: 3.3 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 67 Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink] ### Show Tags 29 Dec 2012, 11:42 faltuhaiye11 wrote: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate back to health, the chief executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearlv 512 billion in assets over the next 18 months. A executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly$12billion in assets over the next 18 months
B executive's plans, which are to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12 billion in assets over the next 18 months were announced on Wednesday. C executive's plans for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly$12 billion in assets over the next 18 months were announced on Wednesday.
D executive announced plans Wednesday to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12billion in assets over the next 18 months E executive announced plans Wednesday that are to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly$12billion in assets over the next 18 months

Okay i understand that in US without preposition on we can write the sentence as in option
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D
, my question is why explanations say that Outlining his strategy is a dangling modifier . i feel Outlining HIS can modify Executive's plan. I think plan can also outline his strategy .. and these plans could also be announced by some one else.As in "Results were announced on Wednesday" .The idea of plan outlining strategy perfectly makes sense to me. In c the only flaw i see is for cutting is not preferable when to cut is present but other wise it is correct.

I will also provide an example to make my point , veterans must have seen this questions :
Q)So dogged were Frances Perkins’investigations of the garment industry, and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker.
OA : so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that

A crystal clear explanation would be much appreciated.

Could someone explain why OffAnsw doesn't use preposition "on" before "Wednesday" ? Is it correct to say "executive announced plans Wednesday" instead of "executive announced plans on Wednesday"?
Thank you.
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Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2013, 07:12
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Hi pleaman,

e-gmat team wishes you a very Happy New Year.
Not using a preposition such as "on" before the name of the days is a very American style of writing. You can read the online publications of The Wall Street journal or The New York Times to find this common usage.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2013, 07:14
egmat wrote:
Hi pleaman,

e-gmat team wishes you a very Happy New Year.
Not using a preposition such as "on" before the name of the days is a very American style of writing. You can read the online publications of The Wall Street journal or The New York Times to find this common usage.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Do you mean that WSJ and other upper level magazine/joural made this mistake '? did I understand properly ??
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Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2013, 07:39
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carcass wrote:
Do you mean that WSJ and other upper level magazine/joural made this mistake '? did I understand properly ??

Hi carcass,

This is not a mistake. This is a style of writing. This is the way they write. This is not a grammatical issue. This is a stylistic issue

Thanks.
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Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2013, 07:57
egmat wrote:
carcass wrote:
Do you mean that WSJ and other upper level magazine/joural made this mistake '? did I understand properly ??

Hi carcass,

This is not a mistake. This is a style of writing. This is the way they write. This is not a grammatical issue. This is a stylistic issue

Thanks.

Good to know better style reflects a better writing

Thanks
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Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2013, 20:12
WHY e IS WRONG?
why E is considered the distorted meaning

E meann "the plans are to cut" , "the plans must cut in the future"

E is both grammatical and logic but

USING COMMON SENSE, we see that D is intended meaning.

second reason why E is wrong is that D is closer to the meaning of the original sentence than E.

there are 2 ways to realize the distored meaning:
1. is the meaing is further from the meaing of the original sentence
2. using common sense.

pls comment, is my thinking correct?

E is worth discussing carefully . pls remember, this is og question.
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02 Jan 2013, 20:26
the following from og 12 (not from og10 which is considered old when gmat focuse on meaning) ilustrate my point. hope many persons discuss my thinking

In 1527 King Henry VII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so as to marry Anne Boleyn.

A.
B. and so could be married to
C. to be married to
D. so that he could marry to
E. in order that he would marry to

we realize C is correct by using common sense. there are 2 ways to justify whether a choice is distored meaing. as mentioned in my above posting. But, The meaning of the original sentence dose not help us eliminate some choices and all incorrect choices are grammatical and logic. all choices A,B,D and E show that the possiblilty of marying is certain. choice C, on the other hand, show that possibility is not certain. using common sensen, we realize only C is correct. Using common sense is only method here to realize the distored meaning.

The point I try to make here is that in some cases , USING COMMON SENSE is the only way to realize the distorted meaning. Ron from Manhantan also said about this point already.

pls discuss , comment.
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Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2013, 05:51
thangvietnam wrote:
WHY e IS WRONG?
why E is considered the distorted meaning

E meann "the plans are to cut" , "the plans must cut in the future"

E is both grammatical and logic but

USING COMMON SENSE, we see that D is intended meaning.

second reason why E is wrong is that D is closer to the meaning of the original sentence than E.

there are 2 ways to realize the distored meaning:
1. is the meaing is further from the meaing of the original sentence
2. using common sense.

pls comment, is my thinking correct?

E is worth discussing carefully . pls remember, this is og question.

Hi thangvietnam,

e-gmat team wishes you a very Happy New Year.

Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate back to health, the chief executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearlv 512 billion in assets over the next 18 months.

E. executive announced plans Wednesday that are to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly $12billion in assets over the next 18 months: Incorrect. This choice is grammatically incorrect because relative pronoun “that” illogically refers to the preceding noun “Wednesday”. Remember that “Wednesday” actually stands in the sentence as “on Wednesday”. This understood prepositional phrase modifies the verb “announced” and not the noun “plans”. This understood prepositional phrase can be placed somewhere else in the sentence without distorting the intended meaning of this sentence. To learn when a noun modifier can refer to a far-away noun and when it cannot, click on the following link to read this detailed article: noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html Your analysis of distorted meaning is correct. The intended meaning of the sentence may be distorted by suggesting some other meaning or by violating the common knowledge through the answer choices. Hope this helps. Thanks. Shraddha _________________ | '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com e-GMAT Representative Joined: 02 Nov 2011 Posts: 1995 Followers: 2054 Kudos [?]: 6990 [2] , given: 262 Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink] ### Show Tags 03 Jan 2013, 06:51 2 This post received KUDOS Expert's post thangvietnam wrote: the following from og 12 (not from og10 which is considered old when gmat focuse on meaning) ilustrate my point. hope many persons discuss my thinking In 1527 King Henry VII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so as to marry Anne Boleyn. A. B. and so could be married to C. to be married to D. so that he could marry to E. in order that he would marry to we realize C is correct by using common sense. there are 2 ways to justify whether a choice is distored meaing. as mentioned in my above posting. But, The meaning of the original sentence dose not help us eliminate some choices and all incorrect choices are grammatical and logic. all choices A,B,D and E show that the possiblilty of marying is certain. choice C, on the other hand, show that possibility is not certain. using common sensen, we realize only C is correct. Using common sense is only method here to realize the distored meaning. The point I try to make here is that in some cases , USING COMMON SENSE is the only way to realize the distorted meaning. Ron from Manhantan also said about this point already. pls discuss , comment. Hi thangvietnam, Yes, there are many sentences the intended meaning of which can be understood through common knowledge. These types of sentences generally deal with universal truths or general known fact. The OG12 sentence you have cited is a historical event. Not many people may know about this event. However, understanding the intended meaning of this sentence is not difficult as it talk about what did King Henry VIII do to get married to Anne Boleyn. Now in order to get to the correct answer of any SC problem, intended meaning must be maintained through correct grammatical structure. There can be many times when one can understand the intended meaning but may not be able to identify the grammatical issues with various answer choices. So we need knowledge of both to get to the correct answer. So now let’s solve this official sentence: In 1527 King Henry VIII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so as to marry Anne Boleyn. MEANING ANALYSIS The sentence is an event form history. King Henry VIII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. ERROR ANALYSIS “So as to marry” is not idiomatic. This expression is not very clear in expressing the reason that King Henry sought the annulment of his marriage because he wanted to marry Anne Boleyn. PoE: A) so as to: Incorrect for the reason stated above. B) and so could be married to: Incorrect. This choice implies that annulment of his marriage will automatically make King Henry married to Anne Boleyn. This is not the intended meaning of the sentence. The sentence means that King Henry could not marry Boleyn as long he was married to Catherine. The annulment of marriage with her could only make it possible for King Henry to marry Boleyn. C) to be married to: Incorrect. This choice also implies the same thing. Annulment of the marriage with Catherine will not make King Henry married to Boleyn. It will just make him eligible to marry her. D) so that he could marry: Correct. This choice clearly states the reason why King Henry sought the annulment of his marriage to Catherine. He did it so that he could marry Boleyn. Now annulment would make it possible for him to marry Boleyn. Now, if he married Boleyn or not, is irrelevant. But the annulment would surely make it possible for him to marry Boleyn if he wished to. E) in order that he would marry: Incorrect. Conditional “would” states an assumption that King Henry would marry Boleyn. But this is not the intended meaning of the sentence. The annulment was imperative to enable him to marry again. Hope this helps. Thanks. Shraddha _________________ | '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com Manager Joined: 13 Oct 2012 Posts: 78 Concentration: General Management, Leadership Schools: IE '15 (A) GMAT 1: 760 Q49 V46 Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: -12 [0], given: 0 Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink] ### Show Tags 03 Jan 2013, 15:39 Ans - D "His" in the modifier has no reference in options A,B,C VP Joined: 08 Jun 2010 Posts: 1357 Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 105 [0], given: 783 Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink] ### Show Tags 15 Jan 2013, 06:42 egmat wrote: thangvietnam wrote: WHY e IS WRONG? why E is considered the distorted meaning E meann "the plans are to cut" , "the plans must cut in the future" E is both grammatical and logic but USING COMMON SENSE, we see that D is intended meaning. second reason why E is wrong is that D is closer to the meaning of the original sentence than E. there are 2 ways to realize the distored meaning: 1. is the meaing is further from the meaing of the original sentence 2. using common sense. pls comment, is my thinking correct? E is worth discussing carefully . pls remember, this is og question. Hi thangvietnam, e-gmat team wishes you a very Happy New Year. Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate back to health, the chief executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearlv 512 billion in assets over the next 18 months. E. executive announced plans Wednesday that are to cut the company's huge debt by selling nearly$12billion in assets over the next 18 months: Incorrect. This choice is grammatically incorrect because relative pronoun “that” illogically refers to the preceding noun “Wednesday”. Remember that “Wednesday” actually stands in the sentence as “on Wednesday”. This understood prepositional phrase modifies the verb “announced” and not the noun “plans”. This understood prepositional phrase can be placed somewhere else in the sentence without distorting the intended meaning of this sentence.

To learn when a noun modifier can refer to a far-away noun and when it cannot, click on the following link to read this detailed article:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

Your analysis of distorted meaning is correct. The intended meaning of the sentence may be distorted by suggesting some other meaning or by violating the common knowledge through the answer choices.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

great, Thank you e gmat experts.

in the pattern
X of Y, which...
if Y works, which refers to Y
if Y dose not work and Y modifies X and so can not be placed elswhere, which can jump Y to modify X
if Y dose not work and Y dose not modifies X, which can not jump Y to modify X. E choice is this case.

pls confirm, Thank you e gmat expert.
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Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2013, 07:05
egmat wrote:
thangvietnam wrote:
the following from og 12 (not from og10 which is considered old when gmat focuse on meaning) ilustrate my point. hope many persons discuss my thinking

In 1527 King Henry VII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so as to marry Anne Boleyn.

A.
B. and so could be married to
C. to be married to
D. so that he could marry to
E. in order that he would marry to

we realize C is correct by using common sense. there are 2 ways to justify whether a choice is distored meaing. as mentioned in my above posting. But, The meaning of the original sentence dose not help us eliminate some choices and all incorrect choices are grammatical and logic. all choices A,B,D and E show that the possiblilty of marying is certain. choice C, on the other hand, show that possibility is not certain. using common sensen, we realize only C is correct. Using common sense is only method here to realize the distored meaning.

The point I try to make here is that in some cases , USING COMMON SENSE is the only way to realize the distorted meaning. Ron from Manhantan also said about this point already.

pls discuss , comment.

Hi thangvietnam,

Yes, there are many sentences the intended meaning of which can be understood through common knowledge. These types of sentences generally deal with universal truths or general known fact.

The OG12 sentence you have cited is a historical event. Not many people may know about this event. However, understanding the intended meaning of this sentence is not difficult as it talk about what did King Henry VIII do to get married to Anne Boleyn.

Now in order to get to the correct answer of any SC problem, intended meaning must be maintained through correct grammatical structure. There can be many times when one can understand the intended meaning but may not be able to identify the grammatical issues with various answer choices. So we need knowledge of both to get to the correct answer.

So now let’s solve this official sentence:

In 1527 King Henry VIII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so as to marry Anne Boleyn.

MEANING ANALYSIS

The sentence is an event form history. King Henry VIII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so that he could marry Anne Boleyn.

ERROR ANALYSIS

“So as to marry” is not idiomatic. This expression is not very clear in expressing the reason that King Henry sought the annulment of his marriage because he wanted to marry Anne Boleyn.

PoE:

A) so as to: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B) and so could be married to: Incorrect. This choice implies that annulment of his marriage will automatically make King Henry married to Anne Boleyn. This is not the intended meaning of the sentence. The sentence means that King Henry could not marry Boleyn as long he was married to Catherine. The annulment of marriage with her could only make it possible for King Henry to marry Boleyn.

C) to be married to: Incorrect. This choice also implies the same thing. Annulment of the marriage with Catherine will not make King Henry married to Boleyn. It will just make him eligible to marry her.

D) so that he could marry: Correct. This choice clearly states the reason why King Henry sought the annulment of his marriage to Catherine. He did it so that he could marry Boleyn. Now annulment would make it possible for him to marry Boleyn. Now, if he married Boleyn or not, is irrelevant. But the annulment would surely make it possible for him to marry Boleyn if he wished to.

E) in order that he would marry: Incorrect. Conditional “would” states an assumption that King Henry would marry Boleyn. But this is not the intended meaning of the sentence. The annulment was imperative to enable him to marry again.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

thank you e gmat expert,

yes, I agree d is oa.
what I means is that all choice ABCE, if each stands alone, each are grammatical and logic. because when each stand alone , I can say that -the certainty of marying- is the meaning I want to tell you. the meaning I want to say here is the certainty of marying , not the low possibility of marying as meaning of choice D.

but if they stand with choice D, only D is intended meaning, .USING COMMON SENESE , I know this. your analysis of ABCE said that they are wrong because they are not the intended meaning, because the possibility of marying is certain in choice ABCE. This analysis agree with my thinking.

your sc core skill in the e gmat corse is great for me and I think, for many persons.
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Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2013, 09:14
thangvietnam wrote:
in the pattern
X of Y, which...
if Y works, which refers to Y
if Y dose not work and Y modifies X and so can not be placed elswhere, which can jump Y to modify X
if Y dose not work and Y dose not modifies X, which can not jump Y to modify X. E choice is this case.

pls confirm, Thank you e gmat expert.

Hi thangvietnam,

Precisely. Your understanding is correct. We need to look which entity "which" logically refers to and check its placement accordingly.

Thanks.
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Re: Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2015, 03:15
egmat wrote:
Hi there,

Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate back to health, the chief executive's plans were announced on Wednesday for cutting the company's huge debt by selling nearly 512 billion in assets over the next 18 months.

We certainly have modifier issue in this sentence. The opening verb-ing modifier “outlining…” is in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. Now this modifier denotes some action. It denotes the action of someone outlining “his” strategy for something. Hence, it needs a doer. The context of the sentence clearly tells us that it was the chief executive who outlined his plans by announcing.

Let’s take a simple example here:

1. Riding a bicycle, Joe crossed the bridge.

The opening modifier “riding” denotes an action. It needs a doer for that action. Hence, this modifier associates with the subject of the following clause “Joe”. This makes perfect sense because Joe rode the bicycle and that’s how he crossed the bridge. Here the verb-ing modifier “riding” makes sense with the subject “Joe”. Also notice that here the opening modifier is modifying the entire following clause and not just the subject “Joe”.

2. Presenting detail of his project, Joe’s plans were announced to start the production within thirty days.

Now in this sentence, you might argue “Joe’s plan”, the subject, can very well be associated with “presenting” as plans can present details. OK. However, “presenting” needs doer and “Joe’s plan” cannot be a doer because someone else announced the plan. Also notice that the opening modifier is not only modifying the subject of the main clause. It is modifying the entire main clause. It is talking about the detail that was presented, that is the production date. Hence the above mentioned sentence is incorrect.

The official question suffers from the same flaw. The opening modifier needs a doer and “chief executive’s plans” cannot be that doer. Also the opening modifier should modify the entire main clause because the main clause talks about the strategy outlined by the executive.

Now let’s come to the example that you have cited:

So dogged were Frances Perkins’ investigations of the garment industry, and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker.

Here the sentence structure is very different from the “chief executive’s plan” sentence. Here we have an opening dependent clause that is the cause followed by the main clause that is the effect. The correct answer follows the construction of “so X that Y”. This construction correctly and clearly presents the cause-effect relationship between the two clauses.

In the question at hand, this is not the scenario. Here we have an opening verb-ing modifier that needs a doer as well as it must modify the following clause as well. Hence, choice D is the correct answer.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

I am a current e-gmat subscriber. I am a little confused in the reference of modifier in this sentence in the context of reference of "His". In the course we have learned that his refers to the possessive pronoun only, now why is Outlining his modifying Chief executive and not chief executive's plans. I understood the above explanation but I am confused on the reference of his.Could you please clarify the reference of his in the sentence and also generally while referring to noun?
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03 Jun 2015, 00:49
two important point
noun to do
is correct
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26 Jun 2015, 04:50
egmat wrote:
thangvietnam wrote:
in the pattern
X of Y, which...
if Y works, which refers to Y
if Y dose not work and Y modifies X and so can not be placed elswhere, which can jump Y to modify X
if Y dose not work and Y dose not modifies X, which can not jump Y to modify X. E choice is this case.

pls confirm, Thank you e gmat expert.

Hi thangvietnam,

Precisely. Your understanding is correct. We need to look which entity "which" logically refers to and check its placement accordingly.

Thanks.

Hi egmat,

1. What does 'to cut company's huge ...' modify in this sentence?

Is this phrase a verb modifier, modifying the verb 'announced' or an adjective modifying 'plans'

2. What does 'by selling ...' modify in this sentence?
Does this modifier also need a subject, a do-er, that makes sense with it? And, hence, Choices A, B and C can be eliminated as 'plans' themselves cannot 'sell' anything?

Thanks,
Outlining his strategy for nursing the troubled conglomerate   [#permalink] 26 Jun 2015, 04:50
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