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# Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average

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Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2006, 10:40
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Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoalâ€™s being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.
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07 Sep 2006, 11:46
Swagatalakshmi wrote:

I think A is good.
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07 Sep 2006, 11:56
I think (B) too.The two causes must be combined into a single sentence.
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07 Sep 2006, 12:11
I go for A. B sounds artificial, "a tripling was due" is painfully unidiomatic.
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07 Sep 2006, 13:23
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

Clear A...

B : tripling??
C : being??
D : no connection between the two phrases...
E : being??
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07 Sep 2006, 13:30
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ps_dahiya wrote:
Swagatalakshmi wrote:

I think A is good.

I goofed up. I was trying to solve it under 1.5 minute ... looks like I'm not there yet

I diagramed the original sentence and found two perfectly joined adverbial clauses.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2011, 03:25
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Send me emails if you want to discuss SC with me, and the address is in the signiture.

The basic idea of my argument for choosing A is that there is an semantical ambiguity about the verbial modifier 'over the century'

I think D, E are clearly grammatically unsound.

So A B & C are left.

Now, suppose they are all grammatically correct.

In the sentence B, the problem is we are not sure about the time when 'a tripling' occurs.

Let's consider the following sentence:
#1，Over the course of the last two decades, the disintegration of the Soviet Union continued effecting the international politics.

The disintegration of Soviet Union didn't last for 20 years. What incessantly existed in the last 20 years was the effect of its disintegration. 'Over the course of the last two decades' is an adverbial modifier, and it is modifying the whole sentence, not the subject.

Back to the choice B:
Its main structure is:
over the course of 18th century (advervial modifier) a tripling (subject) was due to...(predicative).
And the adverbial is modifying the whole sentence, not the subject. So we are not sure when the 'tripling' happened.
But the author clearly wanted to tell us that 'the output of iron outwork' were incassently growing over the whole 18th century, and it tripled as a result.

So B is ambiguous.

For C

There are two ambiguous points:

1. Sentence C fails to show the causal relationship between 'the output of iron' and 'those technique improvements'.
As we can inform, the author tried to tell us the improvements of certain techniques CAUSE the tripling of iron output.
But by using 'with', the sentence C fails to tell us the logic relationship between the 'improvements of techniques' and 'tripling of iron output'

For example:
#3 I passed the exam, with the pan borrowed from my roommate.
#4 I passed the exam, by using the pan borrowed from my roommate.
#5 I passed the exam, with very little preparation

In #3, there is no causal relationship between 'pass the exam' and 'pan borrowed from my roommate'. They are just coincident.
but by #4, I claim that there is some (magical) causal relationship between 'pass the exam' and 'using the pan...'
In #5, the preposition 'with' shows a little flavor of surprise: even though I had little preparation, I passed the exam. And here, no causal relationship at all.

Back to our question. By using 'with', Sentence C only shows the coincidence of those events (like the pan and to pass the exam), not their causal relationship which the author was dying to tell us.

2. the adverbial modifier in sentence C failed tell us when those techniques improvements happed.

As I mentioned above, the adverbial modifier is modifying the sentence. In sentence C, luckily, the adverbial 'over 18 century' is clearly modifying the sentence 'the output tripled', and this is what the author wanted to say.

But it is not modifying other adverbials, i.e. 'charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery'. Therefore, we are still not sure about when these happened.

So C is out.

Choose A.

A's structure looked wierd, because the author intenionally put the three parts together without using a comma:
1 the output tripled...
2 as a result of the improvement of...
3 and because the coal replace...
Therefore the adverbial modifier 'over the cause of the 18th century' with a comma can modify these three simultaneously, and A clearly tells us that the tripling is a tripling over the 18th century, and that the improvement of blowing technique and the coal replacement both happened some times during the 18th century.

So although A looks very artificial, it clearly shows what the author wanted to tell us
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2011, 11:28
egoistwlv wrote:
Send me emails if you want to discuss SC with me, and the address is in the signiture.

The basic idea of my argument for choosing A is that there is an semantical ambiguity about the verbial modifier 'over the century'

I think D, E are clearly grammatically unsound.

So A B & C are left.

Now, suppose they are all grammatically correct.

In the sentence B, the problem is we are not sure about the time when 'a tripling' occurs.

Let's consider the following sentence:
#1，Over the course of the last two decades, the disintegration of the Soviet Union continued effecting the international politics.

The disintegration of Soviet Union didn't last for 20 years. What incessantly existed in the last 20 years was the effect of its disintegration. 'Over the course of the last two decades' is an adverbial modifier, and it is modifying the whole sentence, not the subject.

Back to the choice B:
Its main structure is:
over the course of 18th century (advervial modifier) a tripling (subject) was due to...(predicative).
And the adverbial is modifying the whole sentence, not the subject. So we are not sure when the 'tripling' happened.
But the author clearly wanted to tell us that 'the output of iron outwork' were incassently growing over the whole 18th century, and it tripled as a result.

So B is ambiguous.

For C

There are two ambiguous points:

1. Sentence C fails to show the causal relationship between 'the output of iron' and 'those technique improvements'.
As we can inform, the author tried to tell us the improvements of certain techniques CAUSE the tripling of iron output.
But by using 'with', the sentence C fails to tell us the logic relationship between the 'improvements of techniques' and 'tripling of iron output'

For example:
#3 I passed the exam, with the pan borrowed from my roommate.
#4 I passed the exam, by using the pan borrowed from my roommate.
#5 I passed the exam, with very little preparation

In #3, there is no causal relationship between 'pass the exam' and 'pan borrowed from my roommate'. They are just coincident.
but by #4, I claim that there is some (magical) causal relationship between 'pass the exam' and 'using the pan...'
In #5, the preposition 'with' shows a little flavor of surprise: even though I had little preparation, I passed the exam. And here, no causal relationship at all.

Back to our question. By using 'with', Sentence C only shows the coincidence of those events (like the pan and to pass the exam), not their causal relationship which the author was dying to tell us.

2. the adverbial modifier in sentence C failed tell us when those techniques improvements happed.

As I mentioned above, the adverbial modifier is modifying the sentence. In sentence C, luckily, the adverbial 'over 18 century' is clearly modifying the sentence 'the output tripled', and this is what the author wanted to say.

But it is not modifying other adverbials, i.e. 'charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery'. Therefore, we are still not sure about when these happened.

So C is out.

Choose A.

A's structure looked wierd, because the author intenionally put the three parts together without using a comma:
1 the output tripled...
2 as a result of the improvement of...
3 and because the coal replace...
Therefore the adverbial modifier 'over the cause of the 18th century' with a comma can modify these three simultaneously, and A clearly tells us that the tripling is a tripling over the 18th century, and that the improvement of blowing technique and the coal replacement both happened some times during the 18th century.

So although A looks very artificial, it clearly shows what the author wanted to tell us

I go for A. Dont think anything is wrong with the original sentence.
Very thorough analysis Zeng. Good one.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2011, 20:06
I vote for an A here. But A does not seem parallel. Can we have some expert advice on that?
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2011, 18:13
Can't decide b/w A and C, but in exam would choose C. Because A is not parallel, as a result...and because
where as C lack cause effect but uses but is parallel.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2015, 14:51
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2016, 02:02
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoalâ€™s being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

I got this question while attempting the exam pack 2 mock.
My understanding for the question was
Over the course of the eighteenth century,
the average output of ironwork tripled because of two reasons.
1. several improvements in blowing machinery
2. because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore

In error analysis, I deduced error in parallelism.
the first entity in the list is a noun phrase and second is a clause.
For option B usage of 'due to' is wrong as it is presenting action and also distorts the meaning.
Option C both the entities in the list are phrases but usage of being is incorrect.
Option D: the meaning is lost and there is no main verb.
Option E: No main verb

The correct ans is A. While attempting this ques, I thought that coal is not performing the action of replacing so replaced cannot be the verb. If the sentence were 'because coal was replaced by charcoal', then it would be a clause. I was really confused here and finally ended up marking incorrect option. Acc to my understanding correct ans should be:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and replacement of charcoal by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

Any inputs will be much appreciated.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2016, 11:20
In option A, are as a result of / and because Parallel?? There is nothing wrong to use it like that?

Wouldn't it be better to say it like this: "as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and the replacement of charcoal...."??
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2016, 19:31
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoalâ€™s being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

Meaning: Over the course of 18th century average output tripled as a result of several improvements and coal replacing charcoal
Option A is correct as it
Option B: the usage of "due to" is wrong
Option C: Usage of being is incorrect.
Option D: we need a connector between the two sentences. They cannot be joined with a comma
Option E: There is no verb in this sentence.

Correct Option: A
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average   [#permalink] 26 Jul 2016, 19:31
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