Over the past few years, banks have systematically raised their old fees and invented new ones that are harder and harder for consumers to avoid.
(A) banks have
their old fees and invented
new ones that are harder and harder for consumers to avoid CORRECT:
"have raised" correctly expresses an action that started in the past and continues in the present(or has an effect in the present). "and" connects two parallel actions by the banks that are expresses in the same way, keeping the parallen structure
The sentence is clear
(B) banks are
their old fees and inventing new ones that become
harder and harder for consumers to avoid.
Over the past few years, banks are (...) raising and inventing; is is a wrong usage of the ING form as verb. (the correct verb tense is present perfect
: refer to A)
(C) banks systematically raising
new ones make them harder and harder for consumers to avoid
The ING form requires "to be", if used as a verb (like in this case) : "are
raising". However the verb tense is wrong (refer to A)
(D) as banks systematically raised their old fees and invented new ones, avoiding
them becomes harder and harder for consumers
My main point to eliminate D is "avoiding". As an "COMMA + ING" it modifies the preceding clause.
When you find a construct like this keep in mind this rule: ", + ING" refers to the preceding clause, it generally expresses a consequence of the previous action or adds information/expalain it, and must "make sense" with the previous subject.
"banks raised (...) avoiding
" is wrong
(E) as banks have systematically raised their old fees and invented new ones, it is becoming harder and harder for consumers to avoid them
What does them refer to? banks or fees? Not clear
Last year, Archit visited Europe
Last year, Archit has visited Europe.
Which one is correct and why?
The correct usage of present perfect is
"The present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has an influence on the present."
In this case the correct option is the first one.
Keep in mind also that when you specify a time
("last year") you CANNOT use present perfect.
"over the past few years" is not a specified time, and you can use the present perfect with expressions like :never, many times,...
Hope it's clear, let me know
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