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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many

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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2012, 11:19
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43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

hi all, i used the POE technique to eliminate (due to vs Because of) the wrong answers and was left with C & D as the choices for the following questions. I eliminated D because of the expression are not X, but are Y and selected C which has Not X, But Y construction. The OA seems to be D. Can you help pls?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by pqhai on 24 Aug 2014, 00:06, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2012, 15:37
Selected D, because I found it less awkward.
But find ur reasoning too logical.
Suggestions invited from others.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2012, 17:34
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This sentence is very difficult to stick unless you have the rules about due to and because of very clear (I also picke dit wrong, saying the truth)

So, in concrete we have to choice between due to and because of (or because)

Due to is used to modify only nouns and THEN if you replaced due to with caused by and the phrase has sense, it is correct. Here is wrong due to: A and B are out

Because of must modify a verb, in E we have not a verb that follows because of so E is incorrect

C doesn't have ARE in the ens , so is incorrect.

Answer is D.

Tough :) Hope is clear. For reference follow this link http://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=137
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink] New post 02 Sep 2012, 00:03
tsheshraj wrote:
43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

hi all, i used the POE technique to eliminate (due to vs Because of) the wrong answers and was left with C & D as the choices for the following questions. I eliminated D because of the expression are not X, but are Y and selected C which has Not X, But Y construction. The OA seems to be D. Can you help pls?


I took following approach to reach to the correct answer, although it took more that 2 minutes.

Step 1:
Whenever I find phrase 'due to', I look out option with phrase 'because' and segregate the options into two groups.
Next I replace 'due to' with the word 'caused by' in the original sentence. If it sounds OK, then I eliminate all options with 'because'.
In this question option A and B are eliminated by this approach as here 'caused by' sound awkward.

Step2:
In option C & D, 'they' is correctly referring to 'traits'.
at the end of the sentence 'are' is required, as it will form parallelism. '... traits are not X, but are Y'.
The clause "favored, because....." is a -ed modifier that modifies 'selection'.

So, out of C& D, D seems correct.

Step 3: here ' because of enhancing' is wrong. With because we can use any one of the following forms-
(i) because of enhancement. here enhancement is noun, in this we don't need a subject.
(ii) because (subject) (verb): because they enhance

So, option E is wrong.

With this conclude that option D is correct.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink] New post 02 Sep 2012, 11:04
Between D and C, I chose D. Its just parallelism, are not X.....but are Y,
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink] New post 02 Sep 2012, 23:46
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tsheshraj wrote:
43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

hi all, i used the POE technique to eliminate (due to vs Because of) the wrong answers and was left with C & D as the choices for the following questions. I eliminated D because of the expression are not X, but are Y and selected C which has Not X, But Y construction. The OA seems to be D. Can you help pls?



For parallelism : to avoid confusion I follow this Crude method ..........

A ( B+ C) = AB...................+.......................AC = AB & AC should make sense logically / structurally : + = But / AND, parallel markers

Biological traits are not the products of natural selection......................BUT...............are by-products

For option C :

Let : A = Biological traits are not , X = the prodcuts of natural selection , Y = By products

lets substitute these variables in the above eqn and check :

Biological traits are not ( the products of natural selection )..............................BUT..........................Biological traits are not (by products) = Does it make any sense ?

Now Option D ; Rearrangement of variables :

Let : A = Biological traits are , X = Not THE prodcuts of natural selection , Y = By products

Substitution yields :

Biological traits are (not the products of natural selection)..............................BUT..........................Biological traits are ( by products ) = perfect

Leading to D, my take
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink] New post 03 Sep 2012, 17:06
Answer has to be C for not but construction. what is the source?
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink] New post 03 Sep 2012, 23:23
hi,

its from GMATPrep....so the OA should be correct.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink] New post 06 Sep 2012, 08:34
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tsheshraj wrote:
43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

hi all, i used the POE technique to eliminate (due to vs Because of) the wrong answers and was left with C & D as the choices for the following questions. I eliminated D because of the expression are not X, but are Y and selected C which has Not X, But Y construction. The OA seems to be D. Can you help pls?


Choice D is correct and choice C is incorrect primarily because meaning is more clear with Choice D. Remember the correct answer should be grammatically correct and it should communicate the meaning without any ambiguity. Essentially as you speak or write the sentence, the listener or the reader should not think - what did you just say or what did I just read.

I will only bring out the relevant portions of this sentence as they pertain to the meaning of Choices C and D.

Choice C
SJG said that bio traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.
When I read this sentence, I am a little confused whether the red part is an extension of "reproduction or survival" or the contrast for "products of natural selection". Yes logically I know it should be the latter but the way this choice is written as I go with the flow of the sentence, I may consider this part to be the extension of "reproduction or survival".

This problem is solved with Choice D. Here by repeating the verb - are - now the author clarifies that "the modifier is over" and now we are back to the contrast. i.e.
Biol traits are not the products of natural selection but are the by products of evolutionary development.

So yes from pure grammar standpoint choice C has the right parallel list but it fails to communicate the meaning clearly. Choice D on the other hand by adding "are" emphasizes on the important aspect of meaning as intended by choice A.

Hope this helps.
Regards,
Payal
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink] New post 06 Sep 2012, 10:49
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hi Payal,

thank you so much for replying. I had one query on choice C vs D though. In C we have not X, but Y where X & Y are grammatically and logically parallel. But in D, we have the construction Are not X, but Are Y. Is this construction also idiomatically correct? The reason i had eliminated D earlier was that the construction became not X, but are Y where "X" and "are Y" are not parallel
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2014, 12:10
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many   [#permalink] 23 Aug 2014, 12:10
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