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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many

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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink] New post 28 Oct 2009, 20:17
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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

OA
[Reveal] Spoiler:
:D


Please explain why C is incorrect.

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection,
[Reveal] Spoiler:
favored because they enhance reproduction or survival,
but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.
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Re: Stephen Jay Gould [#permalink] New post 28 Oct 2009, 21:38
tejal777 wrote:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

OA
[Reveal] Spoiler:
:D


Please explain why C is incorrect.

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection,
[Reveal] Spoiler:
favored because they enhance reproduction or survival,
but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.


You are missing verb - are - in C. D corrects this problem.
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Re: Stephen Jay Gould [#permalink] New post 30 Oct 2009, 09:27
Ans is D

Explanation for C

bla bla bla are not, due to ... , but are
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Re: Stephen Jay Gould [#permalink] New post 07 Nov 2009, 08:58
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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

Difference between C and D

Idiomatic usage is Not X but Y
Here if it was mentioned not products of natural selection without the "the" C would have been ok. The extra "the" in front of products needs "are" to maintain parallel structure
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Re: Stephen Jay Gould [#permalink] New post 14 Jun 2010, 08:06
D is not parallel.

The idiom is not X but Y.
In D X is a noun and in Y it is a verb.

Whats wrong in C??
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Re: Stephen Jay Gould [#permalink] New post 25 Jun 2010, 05:43
I picked C too.

But I think the point is

in C......"not the..." is not parallel to "but simply"....it should have been "not the"..."but the"

.......not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products

However, in D....."not the..." is parallel to "but are"...(i have never come across such parallel structure)

.......not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but are simply random by-products

Can some experts comment on this please?
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Re: Stephen Jay Gould [#permalink] New post 25 Jun 2010, 05:58
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I found some discussion on other forum. Should help everyone:

there are two ways of reading the sentence if choice C is inserted. here they are, with the boldface in each indicating exactly what is construed as a modifier:

1) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

2) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

The first example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], but simply Y [random...developments].

So, above, I'm contrasting X and Y, and X also happens to have a little extra modifier going on.

The second example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], modifer of modifier of X [but simply...developments].

In other words, I'm no longer contrasting X and Y - instead, I'm saying something about X and then giving a couple of modifiers in a row to describe it - there is no longer a comparable, contrasting Y. (And this doesn't make logical sense if you know anything about the topic. But it is a grammatical possibility - someone who didn't know that this is illogical couldn't be sure that this isn't the meaning.)

I need that "are" in there to know that it is definitely option 1: comparing X to Y. Biological traits are not X but are Y.
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Re: Stephen Jay Gould [#permalink] New post 25 Jul 2010, 10:15
seekmba wrote:
I found some discussion on other forum. Should help everyone:

there are two ways of reading the sentence if choice C is inserted. here they are, with the boldface in each indicating exactly what is construed as a modifier:

1) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

2) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

The first example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], but simply Y [random...developments].

So, above, I'm contrasting X and Y, and X also happens to have a little extra modifier going on.

The second example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], modifer of modifier of X [but simply...developments].

In other words, I'm no longer contrasting X and Y - instead, I'm saying something about X and then giving a couple of modifiers in a row to describe it - there is no longer a comparable, contrasting Y. (And this doesn't make logical sense if you know anything about the topic. But it is a grammatical possibility - someone who didn't know that this is illogical couldn't be sure that this isn't the meaning.)

I need that "are" in there to know that it is definitely option 1: comparing X to Y. Biological traits are not X but are Y.


I dont follow your explanation.
Not X but Y. How can X be a noun and Y a verb?
Please clarify.
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Re: Stephen Jay Gould [#permalink] New post 27 Aug 2010, 23:17
This is irritating. I went for C lured by the II ism not X but Y . And then this new form of IIism pops in with Are in between. Im going insane.
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Re: Stephen Jay Gould [#permalink] New post 09 Oct 2010, 20:53
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the point is:

the BUT here is not PARALLEL with NOT, I was fooled by it. BUT here is just parallel with FAVORED, both the phrase supports the NATURAL SELECTION.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink] New post 03 Oct 2014, 13:34
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many   [#permalink] 03 Oct 2014, 13:34
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