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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many

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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2009, 21:17
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A
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C
D
E

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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

OA
[Reveal] Spoiler:
:D


Please explain why C is incorrect.

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection,
[Reveal] Spoiler:
favored because they enhance reproduction or survival,
but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2009, 22:38
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tejal777 wrote:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

OA
[Reveal] Spoiler:
:D


Please explain why C is incorrect.

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection,
[Reveal] Spoiler:
favored because they enhance reproduction or survival,
but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.


You are missing verb - are - in C. D corrects this problem.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2009, 10:27
Ans is D

Explanation for C

bla bla bla are not, due to ... , but are
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

Difference between C and D

Idiomatic usage is Not X but Y
Here if it was mentioned not products of natural selection without the "the" C would have been ok. The extra "the" in front of products needs "are" to maintain parallel structure
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2010, 09:06
D is not parallel.

The idiom is not X but Y.
In D X is a noun and in Y it is a verb.

Whats wrong in C??
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2010, 06:43
I picked C too.

But I think the point is

in C......"not the..." is not parallel to "but simply"....it should have been "not the"..."but the"

.......not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products

However, in D....."not the..." is parallel to "but are"...(i have never come across such parallel structure)

.......not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but are simply random by-products

Can some experts comment on this please?
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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I found some discussion on other forum. Should help everyone:

there are two ways of reading the sentence if choice C is inserted. here they are, with the boldface in each indicating exactly what is construed as a modifier:

1) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

2) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

The first example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], but simply Y [random...developments].

So, above, I'm contrasting X and Y, and X also happens to have a little extra modifier going on.

The second example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], modifer of modifier of X [but simply...developments].

In other words, I'm no longer contrasting X and Y - instead, I'm saying something about X and then giving a couple of modifiers in a row to describe it - there is no longer a comparable, contrasting Y. (And this doesn't make logical sense if you know anything about the topic. But it is a grammatical possibility - someone who didn't know that this is illogical couldn't be sure that this isn't the meaning.)

I need that "are" in there to know that it is definitely option 1: comparing X to Y. Biological traits are not X but are Y.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2010, 11:15
seekmba wrote:
I found some discussion on other forum. Should help everyone:

there are two ways of reading the sentence if choice C is inserted. here they are, with the boldface in each indicating exactly what is construed as a modifier:

1) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

2) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

The first example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], but simply Y [random...developments].

So, above, I'm contrasting X and Y, and X also happens to have a little extra modifier going on.

The second example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], modifer of modifier of X [but simply...developments].

In other words, I'm no longer contrasting X and Y - instead, I'm saying something about X and then giving a couple of modifiers in a row to describe it - there is no longer a comparable, contrasting Y. (And this doesn't make logical sense if you know anything about the topic. But it is a grammatical possibility - someone who didn't know that this is illogical couldn't be sure that this isn't the meaning.)

I need that "are" in there to know that it is definitely option 1: comparing X to Y. Biological traits are not X but are Y.


I dont follow your explanation.
Not X but Y. How can X be a noun and Y a verb?
Please clarify.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2010, 00:17
This is irritating. I went for C lured by the II ism not X but Y . And then this new form of IIism pops in with Are in between. Im going insane.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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the point is:

the BUT here is not PARALLEL with NOT, I was fooled by it. BUT here is just parallel with FAVORED, both the phrase supports the NATURAL SELECTION.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

As per the meaning of the sentence:
SJG argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection but they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.
Products of Natural selection are favored due to their enhancement and reproduction or survival.
As per the sentence favored is a Verb+ed Modifier or past participle modifier

Why not "Due to" or "because of"
Now as we know "Products" cannot do favoring so the action is performed on "products", so "favored" is a verb+ed modifier.

Any verb+ed Modifier can be written as a clause.
For example:
kept at the corner of the room, the rock was glittering.

Obviously rock cannot do the action of keeping so kept is a verb+ed modifier modifying the noun -> Rock.
So we can also write The rock that was kept at the corner of the room was glittering. So this modifier can be written as a clause.

And we know
1) Due to" modifies a noun or noun phrase and followed by a noun or noun phrase.
For example:
Delay in the match was due to heavy rain
here "Delay" (a noun or noun phrase) is modified by Due to and Due to takes "Heavy rain" (noun or noun phrase).

2) Because of modifies a noun or noun phrase and followed by a clause.
For example:
Match was delayed because of heavy rain.
So "Match was delayed" is a complete clause and it is modified by "because of" and because of takes "heavy rain" (noun or noun phrase)..

So we need a "because" or "because of" as verb+ed modifier can be expressed as a clause.


(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
Two issues:
1) Due to is wrong as it cannot modify any clause.
2) "they are" is repeated and is not required. "They" refers to "biological traits"


(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
Same issues as above

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are
Though the structure is correct bit not sure who is enhancing the "reproduction or survival"

Now lets check the below options:

Let me demonstrate the problem with Option C)

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

There can be two interpretations:
1) Interpretation 1:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection,
[favored because they enhance reproduction or survival,
but
(because they) simply (enhance) random by-products of other evolutionary developments]

A little bit illogical but yes, does conveys some meaning.

2) Interpretation 2:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are
not
the products of natural selection,(favored because they enhance reproduction or survival),
but
simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

This interpretation makes a lot of sense. So to remove the ambiguity we need repeat the "are" so that reader shouldn't get the 1st illogical meaning at all. And that's the reason why D) wins.

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are - Correct
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2015, 20:09
Please correct my understanding :
Doesn't ,but construction should introduce a new independent clause ??

In D : because they enhance reproduction or survival, but areI do not see any subject post , but construction.

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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2015, 13:43
Can someone explain the problem with D please?
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2015, 21:40
Can any experts explain why D is a better choice than C ?

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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2016, 09:09
Please underline the proper words.

A) and B) are out - due to - wrong usage.
C and E are out Not the X but are Y idiom.

Correct D.
Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many   [#permalink] 17 Apr 2016, 09:09
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