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PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC

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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 09:59
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Hi debayan,

In this construction, we have ellipses at play. Take a look at the sentence with correct answer choice B:

As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits (have become) more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has vastly increased.

Because the verb “have become” already appears once in the sentence, it has been kept understood for the second part. With this verb in place, now we have clear clauses.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 10:27
egmat wrote:
Hi debayan,

In this construction, we have ellipses at play. Take a look at the sentence with correct answer choice B:

As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits (have become) more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has vastly increased.

Because the verb “have become” already appears once in the sentence, it has been kept understood for the second part. With this verb in place, now we have clear clauses.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Thanks for the clarification...

Few quick qs on it :
1. Is it 650+ or 700+ level qs..?
2.How often we may expect this kind of qs.(where the verb in a clause is kept understood) in GMAT..?
3.How we can tackle or gauge this kind of qs..?

Had there been ONLY the 2nd part (i.e. "the chips’ circuits more complex") of the clause starting with 'As', I think we would have required the conjugated verb for sure... Please correct me if I'm wrong.

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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2012, 19:30
debayan222 wrote:
egmat wrote:
Hi debayan,

In this construction, we have ellipses at play. Take a look at the sentence with correct answer choice B:

As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits (have become) more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has vastly increased.

Because the verb “have become” already appears once in the sentence, it has been kept understood for the second part. With this verb in place, now we have clear clauses.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Thanks for the clarification...

Few quick qs on it :
1. Is it 650+ or 700+ level qs..?
2.How often we may expect this kind of qs.(where the verb in a clause is kept understood) in GMAT..?
3.How we can tackle or gauge this kind of qs..?

Had there been ONLY the 2nd part (i.e. "the chips’ circuits more complex") of the clause starting with 'As', I think we would have required the conjugated verb for sure... Please correct me if I'm wrong.

Any feedback on this..?
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2012, 08:32
Thanks e-gmat for such an outstanding post. Hope you will continue with your good work of posting such helpful articles!
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2012, 12:42
debayan222 wrote:
debayan222 wrote:
egmat wrote:
Hi debayan,

In this construction, we have ellipses at play. Take a look at the sentence with correct answer choice B:

As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits (have become) more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has vastly increased.

Because the verb “have become” already appears once in the sentence, it has been kept understood for the second part. With this verb in place, now we have clear clauses.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Thanks for the clarification...

Few quick qs on it :
1. Is it 650+ or 700+ level qs..?
2.How often we may expect this kind of qs.(where the verb in a clause is kept understood) in GMAT..?
3.How we can tackle or gauge this kind of qs..?

Had there been ONLY the 2nd part (i.e. "the chips’ circuits more complex") of the clause starting with 'As', I think we would have required the conjugated verb for sure... Please correct me if I'm wrong.

Any feedback on this..?

Hi debayan,
1. This one is easily a 700 level question.
2. Now ellipsis is quite common in GMAT. Ellipsis can apply to any entity in the sentence, not necessarily only verbs. In comparison sentences, we do witness the understood verbs among other kinds of sentences.
3. You really need to understand the meaning and the context of the sentence to be able to handle such sentences. Make sure that the sentence makes logical sense.

Yes, if the sentence were to have only the second part beginning with “AS”, then we would need a verb for the subject. Only those words are made understood in the sentence that have already appeared somewhere in the sentence. Hence, we could keep “have become” understood in the official sentence as it already appears in the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2012, 05:33

Would you please throw some more of these type questions to the community...It'll be indeed very helpful.
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2013, 08:48
egmat wrote:

ERROR ANALYSIS:

• From the meaning analysis, we can logically say that the two changes in the memory chips have resulted in increase in the power of the chips. But it is not logical to say that these changes have led to increase in the devices they drive. Increase in the number of devices these chips drive depend on many other factors. Hence, despite being GRAMMATICALLY correct, this choice stands LOGICALLY incorrect.

Thanks.

Hi e-gmat,

I basically get stuck in questions where we can infer two possible meanings and this is a classic example of the such scenario. Request you to please clarify my doubt-

Reasoning 1 - As you written above.

Reasoning 2- It could have been possible that the change in the design could have resulted in the increase of electronic devices. I mean, it could have been possible that earlier microchips are able to pass only 50mA current, but due to new design changes they are able to pass 1000 mA current, and because of this new invention, market is flooded with new electronic devices.
Whats wrong in it. How do you make sure which is the intended meaning.

Thanks
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2013, 23:02
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I have one query pertaining to first question--

Question 1

Since digital recording offers essentially perfect reproduction - on compact discs, digital audiotapes, or digital videodiscs - audiophiles can accumulate music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging the sound quality. (GMAT Prep)

A. music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging
B. music, transferring it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and no damage to
C. music, transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to
D. music and transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and then digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging
E. music and transfer it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to

I face challenge sometimes in figuring out the list which will be parallel , for instance here, if i don't know what audiophiles are exactly, but from the sentence cant i decipher that -- audiophiles is something which - can accumulate music, transfer from one format to another, copy it, and digitally alter it...

Regards,
Veenu
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22 Jul 2013, 06:11
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veenu08 wrote:

I have one query pertaining to first question--

Question 1

Since digital recording offers essentially perfect reproduction - on compact discs, digital audiotapes, or digital videodiscs - audiophiles can accumulate music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging the sound quality. (GMAT Prep)

A. music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging
B. music, transferring it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and no damage to
C. music, transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to
D. music and transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and then digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging
E. music and transfer it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to

I face challenge sometimes in figuring out the list which will be parallel , for instance here, if i don't know what audiophiles are exactly, but from the sentence cant i decipher that -- audiophiles is something which - can accumulate music, transfer from one format to another, copy it, and digitally alter it...

Regards,
Veenu

Hi Veenu,

Since digital recording offers essentially perfect reproduction - on compact discs, digital audiotapes, or digital videodiscs - audiophiles can accumulate music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging the sound quality.

It is very important to understand the meaning of the sentence. The logic of the sentence guides us to find the intended list in the sentence.
Another thing to remember is that GMAT does not test us on our knowledge of outside world. I bring up this point because you mentioned that you don’t know the meaning of audiophiles. I’m sure many of us do not. And GMAT does not even want to test on that.

But by reading the sentence, as you correctly mention, we can understand what it means. The sentence talks about digital recording of music. Then it talks about audiophiles. So we can understand that audiophiles is one of the ways of digitally recording music. And how does it function? It records music by transferring music from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging the sound quality. This takes care of our meaning analysis.

Now let’s look into the errors of this sentence (Error Analysis):
We certainly know that there is a list in this sentence. So let’s first identify the parallel marker here, the word that joins the entities in the list. Here we see two markers – “and”. Now all the entities are written in verb-ing form:
• transferring them from one format to another,
• copying it, and
• digitally altering it with little effort and
• not damaging the sound quality

Since there are two “and” here, we need to figure out the correct list. If suppose all the entities in the list are part of the same list, then there should be only one “and” in the correct answer choice. Another possibility is that only first three entities form the list. There is another list in this list that consists “with little effort” and “not damaging the sound quality”. We can clearly see that these two entities are not parallel.
So the correct answer choices will have either all the four entities parallel to each other or two lists – the main list with first three verb-ing modifier entities and the second nested list that is not parallel.

Another error in this sentence is singular noun “music” has plural pronoun “them”

So you see how the original sentence guides us to find out the intended meaning and the intended logical list in the sentence.
On the basis of this analysis, solve the problem and see if you can arrive at the correct answer.

Thanks.
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2013, 05:26
As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have vastly increased. (GMAT Prep)

A. the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
B. the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
C. the chips’ circuits are more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have

As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits ( Have become is implied here) more complex ---> This is a DC

both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have vastly increased. ---> This is an IC

DC, IC ( structure) so the IC must start with the subject in this case both doesn't make sense...

You can eliminate 3 choices right of the bat cos of meaning / structure.. A, C and E
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2013, 16:58
As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have vastly increased. (GMAT Prep)

A. the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
B. the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
C. the chips’ circuits are more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have

MEANING ANAYSIS:

• The etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner, and the chips’ circuits have become more complex. These have resulted into two things:
1. the power of the chips have increased, and
2. the electronic devices they derive have increased. Because its a better chip...therefore more devices are sold?!

ERROR ANALYSIS:

• From the meaning analysis, we can logically say that the two changes in the memory chips have resulted in increase in the power of the chips. But it is not logical to say that these changes have led to increase in the devices they drive. Increase in the number of devices these chips drive depend on many other factors. Hence, despite being GRAMMATICALLY correct, this choice stands LOGICALLY incorrect.

Hi All -

1) I dont understand the logical breakdown in the meaning analysis for #2 that I highlighted in the error analysis. I was between A and B for this question. The chips are thinner and more complex...therefore their power and the number of devices they power have increased -->This makes sense to me because a better chip is a logical selling point more devices to be sold.

2) 'have' in choice A matches with the plural subject of power AND devices. I understand how 'has' makes sense with choice B since the power is singular subject.

3) Is my SV breakdown correct?
- As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits ( V = have become, ellipses is used) more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have vastly increased

4) Perthe meaning analysis provided: two things have happened to the chip and two different things resulted. Is there some sort of meaning parallelism? Or am I looking too far into this?

Can you help clarify...

Thanks,
Al

Last edited by lbnyc13 on 12 Oct 2013, 10:34, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2013, 22:52
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

First of all, I would like thank all of you for appreciating this article and showering Kudos. Such overwhelming responses keep us motivated to write more articles.

Here is the detailed explanation for both the exercise questions.

EXERCISE QUESTION: 1

Since digital recording offers essentially perfect reproduction - on compact discs, digital audiotapes, or digital videodiscs - audiophiles can accumulate music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging the sound quality. (GMAT Prep)

A. music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging
B. music, transferring it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and no damage to
C. music, transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to
D. music and transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and then digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging
E. music and transfer it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to

MEANING ANAYSIS:

Let us first understand the meaning of the sentence. This step is extremely necessary to understand what the LOGICAL intended meaning of the sentence is.

The sentence says that because digital recording offers perfect reproduction, audiophiles can collect music by doing three things:
a. transferring them from one format to another,
b. copying it, and
c. digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging the sound quality.

ERROR ANALYSIS:

• There is a list of three things through which audiophiles can accumulate music. All three are the part of the process that completes the process of accumulation of music in audiophiles. All the entities are correctly written in verb-ing modifier form, meaning they all provide information as to how the music is accumulated in audiophiles.
• There is another list in the third entity of the first list – altering it with:
a. little effort, and
b. not damaging the sound quality.

The first entity of this sub-list is a noun phrase made up of adjective + noun. The second entity is also a noun phrase. However, the grammatical structure of this entity is different from the other. Here we have an adverb (not) followed by a gerund – a noun that denotes action. This entity can very well be written in the form of the first entity as “no damage”.
• Plural pronoun “them” does not agree in number with its singular antecedent “music”.

PoE:

A. music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging: Incorrect for the reasons mentioned above.

B. music, transferring it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and no damage to: Correct. This choice not only maintains the grammatical parallelism of both the main list and the sub list but also maintains the logical parallelism, conveying the logical meaning.

C. music, transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to: Incorrect. Grammatically, this choice is correct. The list per this choice is - audiophiles can:
a. accumulate music,
b. transfer it…
c. copy it, and
d. alter it…
Grammatically, all the entities are parallel here, but now they convey a very different meaning. The last three entities in the list are no more the three steps of accumulating music in audiophiles. All these entities are independent entities now. This choice clearly stands INCORRECT despite being grammatically parallel because it violates the LOGICAL intended meaning of the sentence.

D. music and transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and then digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging: Incorrect.
1. Use of “and” after music is incorrect.
2. “not damaging” is not parallel to “little effort”.

E. music and transfer it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to: Incorrect. Use of “and” after music is incorrect as it creates an unintended list which is not even parallel.

EXERCISE QUESTION: 2

As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have vastly increased. (GMAT Prep)

A. the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
B. the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
C. the chips’ circuits are more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have

MEANING ANAYSIS:

• The etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner, and the chips’ circuits have become more complex. These have resulted into two things:
1. the power of the chips have increased, and
2. the electronic devices they derive have increased.

ERROR ANALYSIS:

• From the meaning analysis, we can logically say that the two changes in the memory chips have resulted in increase in the power of the chips. But it is not logical to say that these changes have led to increase in the devices they drive. Increase in the number of devices these chips drive depend on many other factors. Hence, despite being GRAMMATICALLY correct, this choice stands LOGICALLY incorrect.

PoE:

A. the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B. the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has: Correct. This choice is grammatically as well as logically correct. The changes in the memory chips have resulted in increase in power of the chips as well as the devices they drive.

C. the chips’ circuits are more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive has: Incorrect.
1. Use of “are” is incorrect. The effect of the changes can still be felt in the present.
2. Repeats the logical parallelism error as in choice A.
3. Singular “has” does not agree in number with its plural subject.

D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect.
1. Same verb tense error as in choice C.
2. Plural verb “have” does not agree in number with its singular subject “the power”.

E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect. Same logical parallelism error as in choice A.

Thanks.

The etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner, and the chips’ circuits have become more complex

Can you explain how "have become" in the second clause can be omitted in the original sentence? I didn't choose B because i thought it was grammatically wrong.

Thanks.
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2013, 06:52
Hi Alexander (EasyAL43),

Let's look at the original sentence once again:

As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have vastly increased.

1) Let's concentrate in the colored part of the sentence. It says that the two things have VASTLY INCREASED:

a. power of the chips - Power of the chips have vastly increased.
b. the electronic devices - The electronic devices have vastly increased.

Now, the first option makes complete sense. But can we say about the second one when we write it in a complete sentence? What does it mean to say that the electronic devices have vastly increased? I know in my meaning analysis, I related this increase to sales. But that is not mentioned in the sentence. So just going by what is written in the sentence, this option becomes all the more meaningless. This is the reason why Choice B makes for a Logical Parallelism.

2) Yes, plural "have" makes sense with plural subjects "the power of the chips" and "the electronic device". So, grammatically we don't see any trouble in this sentence.

3) Your analysis is absolutely correct.

4) Yes, this sentence is one of those that tests you on logical parallelism.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2013, 07:25
ntppsrtek wrote:

The etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner, and the chips’ circuits have become more complex

Can you explain how "have become" in the second clause can be omitted in the original sentence? I didn't choose B because i thought it was grammatically wrong.

Thanks.

Hi there,

As I have already mentioned in my previous post, plural verb "have increased" in Choice A do agree in number with plural subjects "power of the chips" and "the electronic devices". Grammatically, there is no issue with this choice. However, the meaning of Choice A is not logical. This error has been rectified in Choice B.

Choice B: the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has

This choice is grammatically as well as logically correct. Singular verb "ahs" is correct because it agrees in number with singular subject "the power". Note that "of the chips and electronic devices" lies in prepositional phrase and hence cannot be the part of the subject.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2013, 23:53
egmat wrote:

As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have vastly increased. (GMAT Prep)

A. the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
B. the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
C. the chips’ circuits are more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have

MEANING ANAYSIS:

• The etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner, and the chips’ circuits have become more complex. These have resulted into two things:
1. the power of the chips have increased, and
2. the electronic devices they derive have increased.

ERROR ANALYSIS:

• From the meaning analysis, we can logically say that the two changes in the memory chips have resulted in increase in the power of the chips. But it is not logical to say that these changes have led to increase in the devices they drive. Increase in the number of devices these chips drive depend on many other factors. Hence, despite being GRAMMATICALLY correct, this choice stands LOGICALLY incorrect.

PoE:

A. the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B. the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has: Correct. This choice is grammatically as well as logically correct. The changes in the memory chips have resulted in increase in power of the chips as well as the devices they drive.

C. the chips’ circuits are more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive has: Incorrect.
1. Use of “are” is incorrect. The effect of the changes can still be felt in the present.
2. Repeats the logical parallelism error as in choice A.
3. Singular “has” does not agree in number with its plural subject.

D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect.
1. Same verb tense error as in choice C.
2. Plural verb “have” does not agree in number with its singular subject “the power”.

E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect. Same logical parallelism error as in choice A.

Thanks.

I have a doubt about choice A. The way I understand the phrase "..both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive..." is that it states the POWER of BOTH the chips AND the electronic devices. I think my understanding is opposite to the way you explained why not to choose choice A. How to prevent this ambiguity in future as I eliminate the answer choice?

Regards,
Lucy
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2013, 00:40

My question is pertaining to the example below:

GUIDED EXAMPLE 2

Among lower paid workers union members are less likely than non-union members to be enrolled in lower end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients and spend less time with each. (GMAT Prep)

A. imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
B. imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
C. that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
D. that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
E. that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending
F. that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spend

If we set aside the original correct answer choice (i.e D) for time being, and introduce choice (F) in its place, would it be the correct ans choice from the logical parallelism as grammatical parallelism view point?
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2013, 07:33
Between choice B: "the chips’ circuits more complex"and choice C: the chips’ circuits are more complex, is there anything wrong in both phrases? can we consider this an example of ellises?? Thanks.
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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30 Mar 2014, 20:51
bagdbmba wrote:
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

First of all, I would like thank all of you for appreciating this article and showering Kudos. Such overwhelming responses keep us motivated to write more articles.

Here is the detailed explanation for both the exercise questions.

EXERCISE QUESTION: 1

Since digital recording offers essentially perfect reproduction - on compact discs, digital audiotapes, or digital videodiscs - audiophiles can accumulate music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging the sound quality. (GMAT Prep)

A. music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging
B. music, transferring it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and no damage to
C. music, transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to
D. music and transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and then digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging
E. music and transfer it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to

MEANING ANAYSIS:

Let us first understand the meaning of the sentence. This step is extremely necessary to understand what the LOGICAL intended meaning of the sentence is.

The sentence says that because digital recording offers perfect reproduction, audiophiles can collect music by doing three things:
a. transferring them from one format to another,
b. copying it, and
c. digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging the sound quality.

ERROR ANALYSIS:

• There is a list of three things through which audiophiles can accumulate music. All three are the part of the process that completes the process of accumulation of music in audiophiles. All the entities are correctly written in verb-ing modifier form, meaning they all provide information as to how the music is accumulated in audiophiles.
• There is another list in the third entity of the first list – altering it with:
a. little effort, and
b. not damaging the sound quality.

The first entity of this sub-list is a noun phrase made up of adjective + noun. The second entity is also a noun phrase. However, the grammatical structure of this entity is different from the other. Here we have an adverb (not) followed by a gerund – a noun that denotes action. This entity can very well be written in the form of the first entity as “no damage”.
• Plural pronoun “them” does not agree in number with its singular antecedent “music”.

PoE:

A. music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging: Incorrect for the reasons mentioned above.

B. music, transferring it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and no damage to: Correct. This choice not only maintains the grammatical parallelism of both the main list and the sub list but also maintains the logical parallelism, conveying the logical meaning.

C. music, transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to: Incorrect. Grammatically, this choice is correct. The list per this choice is - audiophiles can:
a. accumulate music,
b. transfer it…
c. copy it, and
d. alter it…
Grammatically, all the entities are parallel here, but now they convey a very different meaning. The last three entities in the list are no more the three steps of accumulating music in audiophiles. All these entities are independent entities now. This choice clearly stands INCORRECT despite being grammatically parallel because it violates the LOGICAL intended meaning of the sentence.

D. music and transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and then digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging: Incorrect.
1. Use of “and” after music is incorrect.
2. “not damaging” is not parallel to “little effort”.

E. music and transfer it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to: Incorrect. Use of “and” after music is incorrect as it creates an unintended list which is not even parallel.

EXERCISE QUESTION: 2

As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have vastly increased. (GMAT Prep)

A. the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
B. the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
C. the chips’ circuits are more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have

MEANING ANAYSIS:

• The etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner, and the chips’ circuits have become more complex. These have resulted into two things:
1. the power of the chips have increased, and
2. the electronic devices they derive have increased.

ERROR ANALYSIS:

• From the meaning analysis, we can logically say that the two changes in the memory chips have resulted in increase in the power of the chips. But it is not logical to say that these changes have led to increase in the devices they drive. Increase in the number of devices these chips drive depend on many other factors. Hence, despite being GRAMMATICALLY correct, this choice stands LOGICALLY incorrect.

PoE:

A. the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B. the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has: Correct. This choice is grammatically as well as logically correct. The changes in the memory chips have resulted in increase in power of the chips as well as the devices they drive.

C. the chips’ circuits are more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive has: Incorrect.
1. Use of “are” is incorrect. The effect of the changes can still be felt in the present.
2. Repeats the logical parallelism error as in choice A.
3. Singular “has” does not agree in number with its plural subject.

D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect.
1. Same verb tense error as in choice C.
2. Plural verb “have” does not agree in number with its singular subject “the power”.

E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect. Same logical parallelism error as in choice A.

Thanks.

I'm having some confusion over the 2nd qs. answer...!! Need your help for clarification guys...

As you've mentioned that 'B' is the correct answer and Use of “are” is incorrect (and The effect of the changes can still be felt in the present.), then the the second clause (or if we remove the part "the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner" from the clause starting with 'As') following 'and' in the 1st part of the sentence (i.e. the part starting with 'As') is as follows:

"As the chips’ circuits more complex"...It doesn't contain any conjugated verb(rather, any verb) so it's basically a fragment.How it can be a fragment NOT a clause..? Would you please help me understand it..?

Why are you looking for sentence or fragment, why can't be assume this "As the chips’ circuits more complex" a PHRASE !!! Following this phrase we have proper CLAUSE. So I don't see any issue. Please let me know, if i am not correct.
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Re: PARALLELISM: GRAMMAR VS LOGIC [#permalink]

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06 May 2014, 02:47
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

First of all, I would like thank all of you for appreciating this article and showering Kudos. Such overwhelming responses keep us motivated to write more articles.

Here is the detailed explanation for both the exercise questions.

EXERCISE QUESTION: 1

Since digital recording offers essentially perfect reproduction - on compact discs, digital audiotapes, or digital videodiscs - audiophiles can accumulate music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging the sound quality. (GMAT Prep)

A. music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging
B. music, transferring it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and no damage to
C. music, transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to
D. music and transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and then digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging
E. music and transfer it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to

MEANING ANAYSIS:

Let us first understand the meaning of the sentence. This step is extremely necessary to understand what the LOGICAL intended meaning of the sentence is.

The sentence says that because digital recording offers perfect reproduction, audiophiles can collect music by doing three things:
a. transferring them from one format to another,
b. copying it, and
c. digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging the sound quality.

ERROR ANALYSIS:

• There is a list of three things through which audiophiles can accumulate music. All three are the part of the process that completes the process of accumulation of music in audiophiles. All the entities are correctly written in verb-ing modifier form, meaning they all provide information as to how the music is accumulated in audiophiles.
• There is another list in the third entity of the first list – altering it with:
a. little effort, and
b. not damaging the sound quality.

The first entity of this sub-list is a noun phrase made up of adjective + noun. The second entity is also a noun phrase. However, the grammatical structure of this entity is different from the other. Here we have an adverb (not) followed by a gerund – a noun that denotes action. This entity can very well be written in the form of the first entity as “no damage”.
• Plural pronoun “them” does not agree in number with its singular antecedent “music”.

PoE:

A. music, transferring them from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging: Incorrect for the reasons mentioned above.

B. music, transferring it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally altering it with little effort and no damage to: Correct. This choice not only maintains the grammatical parallelism of both the main list and the sub list but also maintains the logical parallelism, conveying the logical meaning.

C. music, transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to: Incorrect. Grammatically, this choice is correct. The list per this choice is - audiophiles can:
a. accumulate music,
b. transfer it…
c. copy it, and
d. alter it…
Grammatically, all the entities are parallel here, but now they convey a very different meaning. The last three entities in the list are no more the three steps of accumulating music in audiophiles. All these entities are independent entities now. This choice clearly stands INCORRECT despite being grammatically parallel because it violates the LOGICAL intended meaning of the sentence.

D. music and transfer it from one format to another, copy it, and then digitally altering it with little effort and not damaging: Incorrect.
1. Use of “and” after music is incorrect.
2. “not damaging” is not parallel to “little effort”.

E. music and transfer it from one format to another, copying it, and digitally alter it with little effort and no damage to: Incorrect. Use of “and” after music is incorrect as it creates an unintended list which is not even parallel.

EXERCISE QUESTION: 2

As the etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner and the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have vastly increased. (GMAT Prep)

A. the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
B. the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
C. the chips’ circuits are more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive has
D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive have
E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have

MEANING ANAYSIS:

• The etched lines on computer memory chips have become thinner, and the chips’ circuits have become more complex. These have resulted into two things:
1. the power of the chips have increased, and
2. the electronic devices they derive have increased.

ERROR ANALYSIS:

• From the meaning analysis, we can logically say that the two changes in the memory chips have resulted in increase in the power of the chips. But it is not logical to say that these changes have led to increase in the devices they drive. Increase in the number of devices these chips drive depend on many other factors. Hence, despite being GRAMMATICALLY correct, this choice stands LOGICALLY incorrect.

PoE:

A. the chips’ circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B. the chips’ circuits more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive has: Correct. This choice is grammatically as well as logically correct. The changes in the memory chips have resulted in increase in power of the chips as well as the devices they drive.

C. the chips’ circuits are more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive has: Incorrect.
1. Use of “are” is incorrect. The effect of the changes can still be felt in the present.
2. Repeats the logical parallelism error as in choice A.
3. Singular “has” does not agree in number with its plural subject.

D. their circuits are more complex, the power of both the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect.
1. Same verb tense error as in choice C.
2. Plural verb “have” does not agree in number with its singular subject “the power”.

E. their circuits more complex, both the power of the chips and the electronic devices they drive have: Incorrect. Same logical parallelism error as in choice A.

Thanks.

Nice post e-GMAT.
It will help non- native (Like me) to understand parallelism issue easily
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02 Sep 2014, 08:57
John prepared for Hurricane Sandy in advance, storing enough food and water, purchased flashlights and candles for possible power outages, and charging his cellphone to reach out to authorities in case of emergency.

A. storing enough food and water, purchased flashlights and candles for possible power outages, and charging

B. storing enough food and water, purchased flashlights and candles for possible power outages, had charged

C. storing enough food and water, purchasing flashlights and candles for possible power outages, and charging

D. stored enough food and water, purchased flashlights and candles for possible power outages, and charged

E. stored enough food and water, and purchased flashlights and candles for possible power outages, being charged

OA to follow
John prepared for Hurricane Sandy in advance,   [#permalink] 02 Sep 2014, 08:57

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