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passage 24 all of the cells in a particular plant start out

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passage 24 all of the cells in a particular plant start out [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2004, 06:24
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passage 24
all of the cells in a particular plant start out with the
same complement of genes. how then can these cells
differentiate and form structures as different as roots,
stems, leaves, and fruits? the answer is that only a
<b>(5)</b> small subset of the genes in a particular kind of cell are
expressed, or turned on, at a given time. this is accom-
plished by a complex system of chemical messengers
that in plants include hormones and other regulatory
molecules. five major hormones have been identified:
<b>(10)</b> auxin, abscisic acid, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberel-
lin. studies of plants have now identified a new class of
regulatory molecules called oligosaccharins.
unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant
hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific, that is,
<b>(15)</b> each has more than one effect on the growth and devel-
opment of plants. the five has so many simultaneous
effects that they are not very useful in artificially
controlling the growth of crops. auxin, for instance,
stimulates the rate of cell elongation, causes shoots to
<b>(20)</b> grow up and roots to grow down, and inhibits the
growth of lateral shoots. auxin also causes the plant to
develop a vascular system, to form lateral roots, and to
produce ethylene.
the pleiotropy of the five well-studied plant
<b>(25)</b> hormones is somewhat analogous to that of certain
hormones in animal. for example, hormones from the
hypothalamus in the brain stimulate the anterior lobe
of the pituitary gland to synthesize and release many
different hormones, one of which stimulates the release
<b>(30)</b> of hormones from the adrenal cortex. these hormones
have specific effects on target organs all over the body.
one hormone stimulates the thyroid gland, for
example, another the ovarian follicle cells, and so forth.
in other words, there is a hierarchy of hormones.
<b>(35)</b> such a hierarchy may also exist in plants. oligosac-
charins are fragments of the cell wall released by
enzymes: different enzymes release different oligosac-
charins. there are indications that pleiotropic plant
hormones may actually function by activating the
<b>(40)</b> enzymes that release these other, more specific chemical
messengers from the cell wall.

1. according to the passage, the five well-known plant hormones are not useful in controlling the growth of crops because
(a) it is not known exactly what functions the hormones perform
(b) each hormone has various effects on plants
(c) none of the hormones can function without the others
(d) each hormone has different effects on different kinds of plants
(e) each hormone works on only a small subset of a cell's genes at any particular time

2. the passage suggests that the place of hypothalamic hormones in the hormonal hierarchies of animals is similar to the place of which of the following in plants?
(a) plant cell walls
(b) the complement of genes in each plant cell
(c) a subset of a plant cell's gene complement
(d) the five major hormones
(e) the oligosaccharins

3. the passage suggests that which of the following is a function likely to be performed by an oligosaccharin?
(a) to stimulate a particular plant cell to become part of a plant's root system
(b) to stimulate the walls of a particular cell to produce other oligosaccharins
(c) to activate enzymes that release specific chemical messengers from plant cell walls
(d) to duplicate the gene complement in a particular plant cell
(e) to produce multiple effects on a particular subsystem of plant cells

4. the author mentions specific effects that auxin has on plant development in order to illustrate the
(a) point that some of the effects of plant hormones can be harmful
(b) way in which hormones are produced by plants
(c) hierarchical nature of the functioning of plant hormones
(d) differences among the best-known plant hormones
(e) concept of pleiotropy as it is exhibited by plant hormones

5. according to the passage, which of the following best describes a function performed by oligosaccharins?
(a) regulating the daily functioning of a plant's cells
(b) interacting with one another to produce different chemicals
(c) releasing specific chemical messengers from a plant's cell walls
(d) producing the hormones that cause plant cells to differentiate to perform different functions
(e) influencing the development of a plant's cells by controlling the expression of the cells' genes

6. the passage suggests that, unlike the pleiotropic hormones, oligosaccharins could be used effectively to
(a) trace the passage of chemicals through the walls of cells
(b) pinpoint functions of other plant hormones
(c) artificially control specific aspects of the development of crops
(d) alter the complement of genes in the cells of plants
(e) alter the effects of the five major hormones on plant development

7. the author discusses animal hormones primarily in order to
(a) introduce the idea of a hierarchy of hormones
(b) explain the effects that auxin has on plant cells
(c) contrast the functioning of plant hormones and animals hormones
(d) illustrate the way in which particular hormones affect animals
(e) explain the distinction between hormones and regulatory molecules
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 [#permalink] New post 08 Nov 2007, 19:10
Anyone care to answer questions 5 and 7? Explanations are appreciated.
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 [#permalink] New post 12 Nov 2007, 09:22
I am hereby giving answers and I would like to get OA also.

1.
(a) it is not known exactly what functions the hormones perform - functioned to be performed are not discussed but how many and in what directions, their control etc is discussed and suggested in this passage.
(b) each hormone has various effects on plants - YUP..this is the reason due to which these hormones cannot be used on crops. Since they produce some unwanted and somehow dangerous effects on crops.RIGHT ANSWER
(c) none of the hormones can function without the others no interdependency is discussed !!
(d) each hormone has different effects on different kinds of plants - goes out of scope of the passage.
(e) each hormone works on only a small subset of a cell's genes at any particular time -does not relate...

2. (a) plant cell walls
(b) the complement of genes in each plant cell
(c) a subset of a plant cell's gene complement
(d) the five major hormones RIGHT as the place of hypothalamic hormones is top and the same is enjoyed by five major hormones in plants.
(e) the oligosaccharins

3. (a) to stimulate a particular plant cell to become part of a plant's root system
(b) to stimulate the walls of a particular cell to produce other oligosaccharins
(c) to activate enzymes that release specific chemical messengers from plant cell walls RIGHT
(d) to duplicate the gene complement in a particular plant cell
(e) to produce multiple effects on a particular subsystem of plant cells

4. (a) is the right answer..

5. (C) is the right answer..

6. (c) is the right answer

7. (A)

I would like to get OA as that would help to give crisp explanation if I am right and would force me to find flaws in my reasoning if I am wrong...
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 [#permalink] New post 12 Nov 2007, 09:29
OAs:
B
D
A
E
E
C
A
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 [#permalink] New post 12 Nov 2007, 09:41
5.
A> In this passage, functioning of the plants is not discussed.
B> No different oliggosacc...interact and this goes out of scope from information provided in the passage,
C> olig.. are the fragments of plant's cell walls
D> again functions of plants....
E> they carry specific information which has a particular consequence on the plant...this is mentioned in the passage..

7. clear> and so forth..in another words....IT IS CLEARLY INDICATIVE OF PRESENTATION OF AN IDEA.
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 [#permalink] New post 12 Nov 2007, 10:49
could someone plz explain the answers for #2 and #3
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 [#permalink] New post 13 Nov 2007, 08:59
jimjohn wrote:
could someone plz explain the answers for #2 and #3


For (2), I would have gone for D.
For (3), Although the OA is (A), I go for (B). In the last few lines of the passage:

oligosaccharins are fragments of the cell wall released by enzymes: different enzymes release different oligosaccharins. there are indications that pleiotropic plant hormones may actually function by activating the
enzymes that release these other, more specific chemical messengers from the cell wall.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2007, 08:47
Here are my answers:
1) B
2) A
3) C
4) E
5) B
6) C
7) A

I forgot to keep track the time though.
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Re: passage 24 all of the cells in a particular plant start out [#permalink] New post 08 Oct 2013, 08:27
Can someone help me..what is the level of this passage ?
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Re: passage 24 all of the cells in a particular plant start out [#permalink] New post 11 Oct 2013, 22:56
Got all right but (3) ... I really did not know the answer ... Can anyone explain (3)?
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Re: passage 24 all of the cells in a particular plant start out [#permalink] New post 09 Nov 2013, 18:24
it is a 700+ passage . big deal . anyone is here ? explain the answer choice more clearly with how to approach these question ?

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Re: passage 24 all of the cells in a particular plant start out [#permalink] New post 10 Nov 2013, 23:23
Below are my answers

1b
2a
3c
4e
5c
6b
7a

Though did not keep the track of time, questions are bit confusing and time consuming .
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Re: passage 24 all of the cells in a particular plant start out [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2014, 04:42
1. according to the passage, the five well-known plant hormones are not useful in controlling the growth of crops because
(a) it is not known exactly what functions the hormones perform
(b) each hormone has various effects on plants
>> unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific,

(c) none of the hormones can function without the others
(d) each hormone has different effects on different kinds of plants
(e) each hormone works on only a small subset of a cell's genes at any particular time

2. the passage suggests that the place of hypothalamic hormones in the hormonal hierarchies of animals is similar to the place of which of the following in plants?
(a) plant cell walls
(b) the complement of genes in each plant cell
(c) a subset of a plant cell's gene complement
(d) the five major hormones
>> Animal hormones example is presented to present the idea of hormone hierarchy in plants.

(e) the oligosaccharins

3. the passage suggests that which of the following is a function likely to be performed by an oligosaccharin?
(a) to stimulate a particular plant cell to become part of a plant's root system
>> unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific,

(b) to stimulate the walls of a particular cell to produce other oligosaccharins
(c) to activate enzymes that release specific chemical messengers from plant cell walls
(d) to duplicate the gene complement in a particular plant cell
(e) to produce multiple effects on a particular subsystem of plant cells

4. the author mentions specific effects that auxin has on plant development in order to illustrate the
(a) point that some of the effects of plant hormones can be harmful
(b) way in which hormones are produced by plants
(c) hierarchical nature of the functioning of plant hormones
(d) differences among the best-known plant hormones
(e) concept of pleiotropy as it is exhibited by plant hormones
>>the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific.Since auxin has multiple effects.

5. according to the passage, which of the following best describes a function performed by oligosaccharins?
(a) regulating the daily functioning of a plant's cells
(b) interacting with one another to produce different chemicals
(c) releasing specific chemical messengers from a plant's cell walls
(d) producing the hormones that cause plant cells to differentiate to perform different functions
(e) influencing the development of a plant's cells by controlling the expression of the cells' genes
>> unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific,


6. the passage suggests that, unlike the pleiotropic hormones, oligosaccharins could be used effectively to
(a) trace the passage of chemicals through the walls of cells
(b) pinpoint functions of other plant hormones
(c) artificially control specific aspects of the development of crops
>> Unlike P, O can influence specific property.

(d) alter the complement of genes in the cells of plants
(e) alter the effects of the five major hormones on plant development

7. the author discusses animal hormones primarily in order to
(a) introduce the idea of a hierarchy of hormones
>>the pleiotropy of the five well-studied plant <b>(25)</b> hormones is somewhat analogous to that of certain hormones in animal.

(b) explain the effects that auxin has on plant cells
(c) contrast the functioning of plant hormones and animals hormones
(d) illustrate the way in which particular hormones affect animals
(e) explain the distinction between hormones and regulatory molecules
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Re: passage 24 all of the cells in a particular plant start out   [#permalink] 28 Aug 2014, 04:42
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