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People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young

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People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2008, 13:37
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7. People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young adults who went on to gain approximately one pound every year, so lean young adults can improve their chances of living a long life by gaining about a pound every year.
A flaw in the argument above is that it
(A) gives reasons for the truth of its conclusion that presuppose the truth of that conclusion
(B) proceeds as though a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result must always be present for that result to be achieved
(C) assumes without proof that two phenomena that occur together share an underlying cause
(D) concludes that one phenomenon is the cause of another when at most what has been established is an association between them
(E) fails to recognize that a tendency widely shared by a subgroup within a given population will not necessarily be widely shared by that population as a whole
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Re: Paper CR Test 42 [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2008, 14:35
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Re: Paper CR Test 42 [#permalink]

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GMATBLACKBELT wrote:
7. People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young adults who went on to gain approximately one pound every year, so lean young adults can improve their chances of living a long life by gaining about a pound every year.
A flaw in the argument above is that it
(A) gives reasons for the truth of its conclusion that presuppose the truth of that conclusion i don't understand this so I won't choose it :-D
(B) proceeds as though a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result must always be present for that result to be achieved the words "tend" and "chance" is used, so can't be a guarantee
(C) assumes without proof that two phenomena that occur together share an underlying cause doesn't assume this without any proof. The proof is provided.
(D) concludes that one phenomenon is the cause of another when at most what has been established is an association between them does not conclude this, just acknowleges the association in the argument, and recommends following one part of the association
(E) fails to recognize that a tendency widely shared by a subgroup within a given population will not necessarily be widely shared by that population as a whole the people who live longer are a subgroup, therefore applying their association with their weight to the whole population will not necessarily work. this is therefore the right ans in my opinion
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Re: Paper CR Test 42 [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2008, 16:33
OA is D. I thought this one was very tough b/c many of the answer choices seem to fit the bill of what is being asked.
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Re: Paper CR Test 42 [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2011, 03:10
it is very straight forward D , though E created a bit of confusion . i think less than 2 minutes is ok for this question
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Re: Paper CR Test 42 [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2011, 09:57
the stem has a construction - since A tends to B so B must tend to A.
this is faulty and both options B and D seem to fit the bill.
i chose D though since it seemed better,but still need clarification why B is wrong.
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Re: Paper CR Test 42 [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2011, 02:14
Why is B wrong?


It fits perfectly for me;

one pound each year -> live long

The flaw is that the author does not explain why one pound each year is the cause. It might be the effect of another cause, or there might be something else so there is a flaw of logic because the author does not make this cause as self sufficient to live longer...

Explanation please!
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Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young [#permalink]

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GMATBLACKBELT wrote:
7. People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young adults who went on to gain approximately one pound every year, so lean young adults can improve their chances of living a long life by gaining about a pound every year.
A flaw in the argument above is that it
(A) gives reasons for the truth of its conclusion that presuppose the truth of that conclusion
(B) proceeds as though a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result must always be present for that result to be achieved
(C) assumes without proof that two phenomena that occur together share an underlying cause
(D) concludes that one phenomenon is the cause of another when at most what has been established is an association between them
(E) fails to recognize that a tendency widely shared by a subgroup within a given population will not necessarily be widely shared by that population as a whole


A - lean young adults. B - people who live long. C - adults who gained one pound every year.
Premise: B tend to have been (usually are) A who became C. B=A+C
Conclusion: A can become B if they become C too. A-> B, if A+C

A. reasons for the truth of conclusion (premise) presupposes (requires) the truth of conclusion. No, premise does not require the conclusion to be true. Rather, the conclusion is clearly derived from the premise.
B. there is no guarantee in the argument anywhere. 'Tends to' does not indicate a guarantee.
C. Proof is provided. Also, it is unclear which two phenomena occur together and which one is the cause? A and B do not occur together. There is a 'if' relationship between A and B which makes them sequential.
D. Correct. Concludes that combination of A and C causes B, whereas 'tends to' in the premise indicates only a weak association. So does 'can improve' in conclusion.
E. The conclusion restricts itself to lean people. Population as a whole is not referred to anywhere in the argument.
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Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2016, 12:26
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Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young   [#permalink] 02 Jun 2016, 12:26
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