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Political scientist: As a political system, democracy does

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Political scientist: As a political system, democracy does [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2005, 23:01
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Political scientist: As a political system, democracy does not promote political freedom. There are historical examples of democracies that ultimately resulted in some of the most oppressive societies. Likewise, there have been enlightened despotisms and oligarchies that have provided a remarkable level of political freedom to their subjects.
The reasoning in the political scientist’s argument is flawed because it
(A) confuses the conditions necessary for political freedom with the conditions sufficient to bring it about
(B) fail to consider that a substantial increase in the level of political freedom might cause a society to become more democratic
(C) appeals to historical examples that are irrelevant to the causal claim being made
(D) overlooks the possibility that democracy promotes political freedom without being necessary or sufficient by itself to produce it
(E) bases its historical case on a personal point of view
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Re: Political Scientist [#permalink] New post 03 Mar 2005, 10:06
Conclusion: Democracy doesn't promote political freedom.
Evidence: Historical examples where demo resulted in oppressive societies. There are also examples where despotisms and oligarchies provided political freedom.

Ask for flaws.
(My view: limited examples are not sufficient to draw general conclusion.)

(A) confuses the conditions necessary for political freedom with the conditions sufficient to bring it about
It didn't talk about necessary condition vs sufficient condition.

(B) fail to consider that a substantial increase in the level of political freedom might cause a society to become more democratic
Irrelevant.

(C) appeals to historical examples that are irrelevant to the causal claim being made
The examples are actually relevent, just not sufficient.

(D) overlooks the possibility that democracy promotes political freedom without being necessary or sufficient by itself to produce it
That sould be it. A may not be necessary or sufficient for B, but it can still contribute to B.
For example, I will take my umbralla with me if it is raining and if I can't get a ride. Raining definitely make the chance that I take a umbralla with me higher, even if sometimes I didn't have it with me when it rains (because I got a ride), and other times I actually have my umbralla with me when it wasn't raining (just for the heck of it).

(E) bases its historical case on a personal point of view
It didn't present its examples from a personal point of view.

B, C, and E are easy to eliminate. On a second read you can get rid of A.
(D) is the correct answer.
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Re: Political Scientist [#permalink] New post 03 Mar 2005, 10:31
HongHu wrote:
Conclusion: Democracy doesn't promote political freedom.
Evidence: Historical examples where demo resulted in oppressive societies. There are also examples where despotisms and oligarchies provided political freedom.

Ask for flaws.
(My view: limited examples are not sufficient to draw general conclusion.)

(A) confuses the conditions necessary for political freedom with the conditions sufficient to bring it about
It didn't talk about necessary condition vs sufficient condition.

(B) fail to consider that a substantial increase in the level of political freedom might cause a society to become more democratic
Irrelevant.

(C) appeals to historical examples that are irrelevant to the causal claim being made
The examples are actually relevent, just not sufficient.

(D) overlooks the possibility that democracy promotes political freedom without being necessary or sufficient by itself to produce it
That sould be it. A may not be necessary or sufficient for B, but it can still contribute to B.
For example, I will take my umbralla with me if it is raining and if I can't get a ride. Raining definitely make the chance that I take a umbralla with me higher, even if sometimes I didn't have it with me when it rains (because I got a ride), and other times I actually have my umbralla with me when it wasn't raining (just for the heck of it).

(E) bases its historical case on a personal point of view
It didn't present its examples from a personal point of view.

B, C, and E are easy to eliminate. On a second read you can get rid of A.
(D) is the correct answer.
.

I also had the same view "limited example can't be generalized", thus chose "C" as it says that it is depending on example which might not be applicable to draw a cause-effect relationship.
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 [#permalink] New post 03 Mar 2005, 19:50
D.

Author is making the conclusion that democracy does not promote political freedom, because some democratic societies were oppressive. He overlooks the possibility that inspite of democracy facilitating political freedom, there could be other factors that could have contributed to the oppresive societies, the author considers. He makes a conclusive evidence while only considering just 1 factor, disregarding others.
  [#permalink] 03 Mar 2005, 19:50
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