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President Clinton spent significant money on the No Child

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President Clinton spent significant money on the No Child [#permalink] New post 03 Feb 2013, 19:18
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President Clinton spent significant money on the “No Child Left Behind” program in several school districts throughout the country, which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added thousands of jobs for teachers and support staff.

A. which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added
B. which not only led to a boom in the school construction industry, but also added
C. not only leading to a boom in the school construction industry but also adding
D. leading to a boom in the school construction industry, which also added
E. leading to a boom in the construction industry of school, which added

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by egmat on 05 Feb 2013, 15:46, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 03 Feb 2013, 22:36
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President Clinton spent significant money on the “No Child Left Behind” program in several school districts throughout the country, which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added thousands of jobs for teachers and support staff.
A. which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added-
In this option WHICH refers to Country but the original intent is to focus on the results of program. Thus INCORRECT. Moreover use of AND changes the meaning

B. which not only led to a boom in the school construction industry, but also added -
In this option WHICH refers to Country but the original intent is to focus on the results of program. Thus INCORRECT

C. not only leading to a boom in the school construction industry but also adding -
Use of Participle correctly explains the results of the program. Moreover, Not only X But also lists two results succinctly. Thus CORRECT

D. leading to a boom in the school construction industry, which also added -
In this option WHICH refers to industry.This is grammatically correct but it changes the original intent. Thus INCORRECT

E. leading to a boom in the construction industry of school, which added-
In this option WHICH refers to industry.This is grammatically correct but it changes the original intent. Moreover "Construction industry of School" is awkward & lengthy. Thus INCORRECT

IMO Answer is C.
Hope it helps.

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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2013, 15:45
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Thanks everyone for their overwhelming participation in this question. Here is the much awaited solution!

President Clinton spent significant money on the “No Child Left Behind” program in several school districts throughout the country, which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added thousands of jobs for teachers and support staff.

Image

• President Clinton spent significant money on the “No Child Left Behind” program in several school districts throughout the country,
which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added thousands of jobs for teachers and support staff.

President Clinton spent money on a particular program in several schools. This spending has resulted in two things:
o Boom in the school construction industry
o Addition of jobs for teachers and support staff.

Image

Error Analysis


• President Clinton spent significant money on the “No Child Left Behind” program in several school districts throughout the country,
which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added thousands of jobs for teachers and support staff.

Error 1 – Per the meaning of the sentence, the action of spending resulted into two things. Here relative pronoun “which” has been used to mention the results of the action in the preceding clause. This is incorrect because “which” can only refer to a noun entity and not a clause.

PoE

A. which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

B. which not only led to a boom in the school construction industry, but also added: Incorrect. Repeats the same error as in choice A.

C. not only leading to a boom in the school construction industry but also adding: Correct Answer

D. leading to a boom in the school construction industry, which also added: Incorrect.

Error 1 – Use of “which” is incorrect because it illogically modifies the preceding noun entity “the school construction industry”. Per this choice, the sentence means that the school construction industry added jobs for teachers and support staff.E. more on simplistic design and is more functional than are: Incorrect.

E. leading to a boom in the construction industry of school, which added: Incorrect. Repeats the same error as in choice AD

Image

1. Relative pronouns CANNOT refer to the preceding clause. They can only refer to the preceding noun entity. So when the function of the modifier is to modify preceding clause, then relative pronoun modifiers cannot be used.
2. Comma + Verb-ing modifier presents the result of the preceding clause.

Thanks. :)
Payal
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 04 Feb 2013, 22:13
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Some great explanations here. Lets get a few more folks to respond before we disclose the OA and the explanation. Don't forget to use the poll.
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2013, 18:42
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Great question e-GMAT...Really a 700+ one.

And Kudos for your awesome explanations.

Unfortunately I got it wrong... :( Can you please come up with more of this type of questions after few days so that those who got it wrong like me, will get a chance to verify the lesson learnt here.
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on the No Child [#permalink] New post 13 May 2014, 13:07
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282552 wrote:
Just wanted to get my confusion cleared on this one :
Doing this question the second time and again got it wrong.But this time I used a different logic and wanted to clarify that to make sure I never get this wrong again.
I understand ing modifier here is describing the result of action of the previous clause.But how does this -ing modifier applies to the subject "The president" of the previous clause.
Any explanation would be much appreciated.




Hi 282552,
Thank you for the post. :)


It's great that you have correctly identified that the verb-ing modifiers ‘leading’ and ‘adding’ modify the preceding clause. Also, as you pointed out, these modifiers are describing the results of the action of the preceding clause. The only thing in which you faced a problem was how to check whether the modifier makes sense with the subject or not. Let’s do the sentence structure for the given sentence:


OFFICIAL QUESTION

President Clinton spent significant money on the “No Child Left Behind” program in several school districts throughout the country,
o not only leading to a boom in the school construction industry
o but also adding thousands of jobs for teachers and support staff.


EXPLANATION

As you correctly identified, the verb-ing modifiers in this sentence present the result of the action ‘spending the money’. Let’s try to associate them with the subject ‘President Clinton’.

Now let's think a bit: Can President Clinton be the doer of the two actions: leading and adding?

We can say that President Clinton led to a boom in the school construction industry and added thousands of jobs by spending significant money on the “No Child Left Behind” program. So, the subject makes perfect sense with the modifiers.

Hope the above discussion helps! :)
Regards,

Deepak.
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Re: 700+ level question - "No Room for Error" [#permalink] New post 03 Feb 2013, 20:32
Meaning :- President Clinton spent significant money on a program. the program did 2 things
a. led to a boom in school contr. ind
b. added thousands of jobs

Error Analysis :- which correctly modifies the program, but the 'and also..' can mean that President Clinton spent and President Clinton Added. Need a second which to correctly modify the program - parallelism error.

Option A :- Explained
Option B :- Uses correct idiom, not only - but also to modify program - Correct Answer
Option C :- the verb-ing modifier leading and adding now describe the effects of the preceding clause and does not modify program
Option D :- The school construction industry did not add jobs for teachers, the program did. Also similar verb-ing modifier error and in C
Option E :- Similar verb-ing modifier error as in C and also 'the construction industry of school' is wordy than 'the school construction industry'.

IMO :- B
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 04 Feb 2013, 00:05
President Clinton spent significant money on the “No Child Left Behind” program in several school districts throughout the country, which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added thousands of jobs for teachers and support staff.

Meaning: President's action resulted in a boom in school construction industry and also added thousands of jobs
This sentence represents a cause-effect relationship between the two clause. such a relation can be correctly represented by starting the second clause with -ing modifier (leading).

A. which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added presidents action resulted in a boom in school construction industry , but here "which" refers to country
B. which not only led to a boom in the school construction industry, but also added presidents action resulted in a boom in school construction industry , but here "which" refers to country
C. not only leading to a boom in the school construction industry but also adding correct
D. leading to a boom in the school construction industry, which also added meaning issue. the original sentence means that presidents action resulted in a boom in school construction industry and also added thousands of jobs. But here the sentence says that boom in the construction industry added new jobs
E. leading to a boom in the construction industry of school, which added which incorrectly refers to construction industry,
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 04 Feb 2013, 05:24
[quote="egmat"]President Clinton spent significant money on the “No Child Left Behind” program in several school districts throughout the country, which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added thousands of jobs for teachers and support staff.

A. which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added - Which modifying country .
B. which not only led to a boom in the school construction industry, but also added - Same as A
C. not only leading to a boom in the school construction industry but also adding - Idiom ( Not only ... But also ) used correctly. Two participle phases are parallel.
D. leading to a boom in the school construction industry, which also added - Changed the meaning
E. leading to a boom in the construction industry of school, which added - Changed the meaning

Last edited by sangamsrk on 04 Feb 2013, 05:32, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 04 Feb 2013, 05:27
fameatop, anshunadir,

For verb-ing modifier to explain the results of the preceding clause, the ver-ing modifier should modify both the subject and the verb of the preceding clause also the subject should make sense with the verb-ing.

the subject verb pair of the preceding clause is President Clinton - Spent, so grammatically option C is saying is that president Clinton spent money and this act resulted in boom in construction industry and also in adding the jobs. grammatically option C also states that President Clinton did the action of leading a boom in the school construction industry and president Clinton did the action of adding thousands of jobs. which is not correct.
the institution of program led to those activities.

Also if a modifier between a modified entity and relative pronoun cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence then the relative pronoun will modify the head of the noun phrase. In the above sentence the prep phrase 'in several districts throughout the country' modifies program cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence. hence the relative pronoun will modify the entire noun phrase "the 'No.....country'" and correctly modifies the head of the noun phrase.

I might be moving in a tangential direction but just trying to get my concepts cleared in the process :)
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 04 Feb 2013, 06:17
Stuck up between C and E but finally chose "E" why????????

A. which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added--wrong modifier
B. which not only led to a boom in the school construction industry, but also added---wrong modifier
C. not only leading to a boom in the school construction industry but also adding--correct idiom but tense unveil something else
D. leading to a boom in the school construction industry, which also added--wrong modifier
E. leading to a boom in the construction industry of school, which added....Money already been spent..so the result have to be simple past that's why "which added" is correct
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 04 Feb 2013, 07:12
IMO:E
President Clinton spent significant money on the “No Child Left Behind” program in several school districts throughout the country, which ( antecedent is not clear , it may country/program , however by meaning it seems that spending money on the "no child left behind" program ---> led to boom....so cause n effect relnship => leading in stead of using which would be btr construction) led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added ( not clear who added thds of jobs ) thousands of jobs for teachers and support staff.

A. which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added :incorrect (explained in main clause)
B. which not only led to a boom in the school construction industry, but also added
C. not only leading to a boom in the school construction industry but also adding (leading and adding should not talking abt the same theme and topic , so these two should nt b parallel) :incorrect
D. leading to a boom in the school construction industry, which also added (school construction industry cant add teachers to them , rather school can thds of jobs ) :incorrect
E. leading to a boom in the construction industry of school, which added :correct (correctly show the cause-effect relnship ...and added thds of jobs correctly modify the school)

OA and Official explanation will be posted later. Looking forward to your detailed explanations!

Regards,

Payal
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2013, 19:39
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bagdbmba wrote:
Great question e-GMAT...Really a 700+ one.

And Kudos for your awesome explanations.

Unfortunately I got it wrong... :( Can you please come up with more of this type of questions after few days so that those who got it wrong like me, will get a chance to verify the lesson learnt here.


Sure bagdbmba...But why did you go wrong here? And what is the lesson learned here?
And have I thanked you before for consolidating all e-GMAT posts in one place...If not, then here I am thanking you :)
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2013, 20:29
All I can say is practice, practice and practice :(

Good question Payal.

I have 1 question in the above sentence, ignoring the other errors, what can the pronoun 'which' refer to, can it refer to the Country or the program ?
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 06 Feb 2013, 04:04
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I love this sentence for the reason that a lot of students do not think flexible. (sorry this is not a charge)

In this exam, in each question you MUST use all your tools in your arsenal (btw, love this word because reminds me of megadeth :) )

When meaning is not sufficient to takle a question spot what is the problem using grammar point of view, and viceversa. Both if necessary when you scan the question and try to anticipate always the answer. For instance: reading the question the key word is program

A) which after comma modifies country - out, immediately

B) the same - out

C) mmmmm leading and adding - seems fine. mmmmm not only...but also.....mmmmmmmmm seems fine. keep (15 seconds to think about)

D) leading......mmmmm seems good, keep going........which after comma modifies industry and this change all things........out - immediately

E) same process untill I encouter which......mmmmmmm now modifies school before industry, in concrete are you kidding me ?? - stay away

C and move one. no more of 50/60 seconds to do this mental process.

I admit that is not always simple (and of course me too picks a question wrong, even two :D or five) but use your logic :)

If you have time read this article from Brian Galvin

Fraud or Phenom In Sentence Correction

I love it

regards
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 06 Feb 2013, 05:36
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egmat wrote:
bagdbmba wrote:
Great question e-GMAT...Really a 700+ one.

And Kudos for your awesome explanations.

Unfortunately I got it wrong... :( Can you please come up with more of this type of questions after few days so that those who got it wrong like me, will get a chance to verify the lesson learnt here.


Sure bagdbmba...But why did you go wrong here? And what is the lesson learned here?
And have I thanked you before for consolidating all e-GMAT posts in one place...If not, then here I am thanking you :)


Hey e-GMAT,
Actually I got the meaning wrong...so NO EXCUSE !
I thought it's the program that is responsible for two good things as mentioned...later realized that it's the fact that the President spent that much of money and this has basically caused the program to yield two good results.

Very important lesson learnt here-'which' can't be used to modify or identify clauses. It can do so only to Nouns...

However, had the sentence been some different and the yield is directly caused by the Program itself, then I think 'which' would have been fine in the following use: "...the Program in several schools in the country, which is responsible for bla bla..., is an innovative one.!" Please let me know if I'm right?

And BTW, thanks for the appreciation...I guess the 'Kudo' to my last post is due to the consolidated SC article...not for the wrong answer surely :shock:
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on, 700+ level [#permalink] New post 06 Feb 2013, 08:58
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Folks,
Added this to my post : e-GMAT's ALL SC topics-Consolidated

Refer to my sig.

@ Payal/Shradhha/Rajat-guys, can you please have a look at the consolidated post in my sig. on ALL of your SC topics and questions.Has updated the same with your recent SC 700+ questions.

Please let me know whether I've missed any.
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on the No Child [#permalink] New post 21 Apr 2014, 03:18
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Re: President Clinton spent significant money on the No Child [#permalink] New post 02 May 2014, 12:19
Just wanted to get my confusion cleared on this one :
Doing this question the second time and again got it wrong.But this time I used a different logic and wanted to clarify that to make sure I never get this wrong again.
I understand ing modifier here is describing the result of action of the previous clause.But how does this -ing modifier applies to the subject "The president" of the previous clause.
Any explanation would be much appreciated.
Re: President Clinton spent significant money on the No Child   [#permalink] 02 May 2014, 12:19
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