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Prior to 1975, union efforts to organize public-sector

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Re: Prior to 1975, union efforts to organize public-sector [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2012, 15:54
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I found OA on another site.

1. A
2. E
3. E
4. B
5. C
6. D
7. C
8. A
9. E

Link : http://mbadreamtrue.blogspot.ca/2009/07 ... -july.html
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Re: Prior to 1975, union efforts to organize public-sector [#permalink] New post 25 Aug 2012, 10:37
Can somebody explain the following questions:
2. The author cites union efforts to achieve a fully unionized work force (line 13-19) in order to account for why
(A) politicians might try to oppose public-sector union organizing
(B) public-sector unions have recently focused on organizing women
(C) early organizing efforts often focused on areas where there were large numbers of workers
(D) union efforts with regard to public-sector clerical workers increased dramatically after 1975
(E) unions sometimes tried to organize workers regardless of the workers’ initial interest in unionization
3. The author’s claim that, since the mid-1970’s, a new strategy has emerged in the unionization of public-sector clerical workers (line 23) would be strengthened if the author
(A) described more fully the attitudes of clerical workers toward labor unions
(B) compared the organizing strategies employed by private-sector unions with those of public-sector unions
(C) explained why politicians and administrators sometimes oppose unionization of clerical workers
(D) indicated that the number of unionized public-sector clerical workers was increasing even before the mid-1970’s
(E) showed that the factors that favored unionization drives among these workers prior to 1975 have decreased in importance
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Re: Prior to 1975, union efforts to organize public-sector [#permalink] New post 25 Aug 2012, 13:37
yup, these are the topics I dont want on my GMAT :(
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Re: Prior to 1975, union efforts to organize public-sector [#permalink] New post 27 Jun 2013, 09:22
Hi. Can someone please help me understand what is question 7 asking for? It seems as if the hypothetical situation it is presenting is exactly the same as the one in the passage. Why should there be any change in the result?
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Re: unions [#permalink] New post 28 Jun 2013, 10:36
Expert's post
karan1337 wrote:
raghavakumar85 wrote:
akbism wrote:
Hi,
Please help me in finding the answer for the followings:

7. The author implies that if the increase in the number of women in the work force and the impact of the women’s movement were the main causes of the rise in unionization of public-sector clerical workers, then
(A) more women would hold administrative positions in unions
(B) more women who hold political offices would have positive attitudes toward labor unions
(C) there would be an equivalent rise in unionization of private-sector clerical workers(D) unions would have shown more interest than they have in organizing women
(E) the increase in the number of unionized public-sector clerical workers would have been greater than it has been


It is C. In the last paragraph, if you observe the sentence where the author says that a similar prediction was expected for private sector clerical workers but stated a reason for not happening so. It implies that "the author" implies 'C'.



I understood why C is viable, but i'm confused between options A and D

A seems correct as the passage says that women's number has increased in white collar jobs.

In D, if the movement etc is useful then obviously the unions would have shown more interest in organizing women (1st line of 1st para and last line of last paragraph)

Please explain why these are incorrect.

Thanks!



karan1337,

Question #7 asks what would happen if "the increase in the number of women in the work force and the impact of the women’s movement WERE THE MAIN CAUSES of the rise in unionization of public-sector clerical workers"

Well, the last paragraph is where the author talks about the reasons for the rise in unionization. Those reasons are "more women in the work force", "success in legitimizing women political activisim", etc...

Now if there is
1) an increase in # of women in the work force
2) impact of women's movement..

Then what?

Well that last paragraph goes on to say:
"the absence of any comparable increase in unionization among private-sector clerical workers" -- that means the fact that there was NO increase in unionization in the private sector whereas there WAS an increase in unionization in the PUBLIC sector is because...what?

It's because of some "structural" change. The PUBLIC sector had this structural change but the PRIVATE sector did not.

What kind of "structural" change? A structural change in the multi-occupational public-sector unions themselves. What does that mean? Multi-occupational?

Well the following sentences talks about the occupational distribution between white collar and blue collar jobs. Women mostly are in white collared jobs. Over the past 20 years, the distribution has moved towards white collared jobs, subsequently there has been more females in the job market. More females means we have the increase in female workers we just talked about. How did that come about? Through a structural change toward more white-collared jobs from blue-collared jobs. That structural shift in distribution from blue-collared jobs to white-collared jobs explains why women in labor force increased and why unionization efforts increased in the public sector.

Question #7 is an inference question. The "catalyst" for a rise in public-sector unionization is a structural shift that meant more women in the labor force percentage-wise. The "absence" of unionization in the private sector means the private sector must LACK this structural shift. The private sector must LACK an increase in women labor force participation.

But if the private sector DID have that structural "catalyst" and did have higher women labor force participation, this would result in higher unionization.

Essentially, the passage used "critical reasoning" (specifically "negation") to reason that the structural change was a key factor in affecting unionization.

Critical Reasoning Negation Concept
Original: Structural shift --> Unionization (public)
Negation: No structural shift --> No Unionization (private)

If the private sector DID have a structural shift, we would see the outcome of "unionization".

The problem with (A)
(A) more women would hold administrative positions in unions
(A) is too specific. We know that more women are involved under the hypothetical situation brought up in #7. If there is a higher # of women in the work force, then....what?
This is an inference question so whatever that inferred statement is -- among the answer choices -- it must be supported by information in the passage. Where in the passage does it support the fact that women would hold, specifically, more ADMINISTRATIVE positions? No such information in the passage supports this specific claim.

The problem with (D)
(D) unions would have shown more interest than they have in organizing women
Where in the passage does it support the claim that unions would show MORE interest? Heck, we don't even have anywhere in the passage that talks about unions showing interest in organizing women...let alone showing that the interest level would increase. Sure, women are becoming part of these unions and there's more of them, but the passage does not talk about the perspective of the union as a whole and for that entire union, whether or not they would INCREASE their interest in organizing women. Unions do not organize women. Women are the ones that join these unions and participate in them.
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Re: Prior to 1975, union efforts to organize public-sector [#permalink] New post 30 Jun 2013, 04:30
can anybody elaborate on Q7,, i think the answer might be E but as no OA given not sure whether the answer is correct.

My reasoning is that in the first para the author says the no to 1975 the no. of unionised clerical workers were less and in the para concerning the women the unionisation has increased(wrt no. of clerical workers) thereby increasing the no. of Public sector workers.

this line--> The absence of any comparable increase in unionization among private-sector clerical workers, however, identifies the primary catalyst—the structural change in the multi-occupational public-sector unions themselves suggest that he is talking only about the increase in "public sector clerical workers".

please let me know if the answer and reason is something else.
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Re: Prior to 1975, union efforts to organize public-sector [#permalink] New post 22 Aug 2013, 05:12
These passages are from the old OGs.
I found long passages in some of the portals. These have about 450+ words. When you practise on these passages you have a false idea of the time taken for each question. For example: When I do all the 9 questions and find out the time taken, I find I have done quite well because the total time will be divided by 9 . However, the last few questions will be easier, because I would have got a good grasp of the passage by the 5th question.
However, I need to actually see how long it takes for thE first 4 questions and also the accuracy for the first 4 questions.

I was able to solve the 9 questions in these long passages and found my time per question was only 73 seconds with 7out of 9 questions correct.
But, I was taking 6 minutes for the first 4 questions and the 2 incorrect was always in the first 4. So my accuracy is only 50% .

I don't know how many of you actually understood what I am trying to tell. I suggest you read the passage and answer only the first 4 questions and see your accuracy and time taken. This would help you improve.
In the actual GMAT you get 4 passages of 250 250 250 350 words usually
with 3 3 3 4 questions respectively.

These are my 2 cents...
you may ignore if not useful..
Re: Prior to 1975, union efforts to organize public-sector   [#permalink] 22 Aug 2013, 05:12
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